English Verbs are defined as words 

that with nouns make a statement, a  command or a request, or ask a question about someone or something.

I/ MOOD  OF VERBS:      Verbs are divided into three moods:

A/ the indicative mood that indicates facts and realities

ob is a doctor

 Are the students in class?

Ø Please forgive me !


B/ the imperative mood which is used to give orders.

Ø Do your homework right now.

Ø Don’t smoke in class.


C/ the subjunctive mood is used for hypothetical or contrary to fact conditions.

Ø Indicative             :     Clara exercises every day.

Ø Subjunctive          :      it’s necessary that Clara exercise every day.

            it’s necessary that Clara Be on time.

                                            it’s necessary that Clara Were  on time.


N.B :   


T  The subjunctive mood is always used in sentences introduced by expressions of influencing,

            asking, ordering and demanding such as:



T  With sentences that contain the words if  or  wish  we always use the plural    

           form of  be  (were) in the past never was:


Ø Clara wishes she were  born in USA.

Ø If I were you I would choose to go to Dallas.





Causative verbs are the verbs which are used to cause or force someone to do something. The sentence has two subjects the main subject is not the doer of the action but he only causes the second subject to do the job.  The causative verbs are make, have and get.


Ø The teacher  has       Clara review  the lesson.

Ø The teacher  makes  Clara review  the lesson.

Ø The teacher  gets      Clara to review  the lesson.



N.B:    Notice the different usage of   “to have”  used as a verb, as an auxiliary and as a  causative verb:

Ø As a verb (to possess)                        :           Linda has some homework to do.

Ø As an auxiliary (perfect tense)           :           Linda has done  her homework.

Ø As a causative verb                            :           Linda has Clara do her homework.



 All verbs (except be) have one form for all persons except the third person singular. The third person singular is usually formed by adding –s to the simple, or bare infinitive form. After –ch, -s, -sh, -z and –x , es is added. Do and Go also form the third person by adding –es. Words ending in –y proceeded by a consonant take the –es ending after changing –y to –i. Notice that the third person singular form of have is has.

The uses of the present tense are:

1)      To express a condition that exists at the moment of speaking and may continue for a short time.

Examples:  - He is sick.

- They are angry.

- We are here.

- She seems happy about the news.

2)                  To express a general truth.

Examples: - The sun rises from the East and sets in the west.

 - The earth revolves around the sun.



3)                  To express the idea that an activity or capability existed before the moment of speaking, exists at the moment of speaking, and may continue for an indefinite time.

Examples: - He lives on Wilson street.

- She speaks fluent English.

- My mother bakes wonderful pies..


4)      To express a customary or a habitual action. Adverbs of frequency (often, usually, frequently….) are often used to help express this concept of time…

Examples: - He often goes to the movies.

- I usually take the bus to work.

- I sometimes sleep late on Sunday.



5) To express future time. You will notice that adverbs indicating time are usually used in this construction. It is usually used with scheduling…

Examples:  - There is a meeting next week

- He leaves for Europe next week.

- The movie starts at night



The simple past tense of a regular verb is formed by adding ed or d to the base form. The past tense of most irregular verbs is formed by an internal vowel change, the form is the same for all persons both singular and plural.




Ø An exception is the verb be, which has two past tense forms :

        I was                We were

        You were           You were

He/she/ it was    They were




1)      To express an activity that occurred at a time in the past. The time is specified by a definite time word such as: yesterday, last night, a year ago.

Examples:  - It rained yesterday.

- He arrived last night.

- They came here a year ago.



2)  To express an activity that occurred at an unspecified time in the past, the point of time is implied or understood from the context.

Examples:  - He went to town.

- He came to see us about his schedule.

- He spoke to the captain about it.



3)            To express an activity that occurred in the past over a continuous period of time but doesn't continue to the present moment of speaking.


- He studied French when he was in high school.

- He worked for that company for weeks.

- The student attended school during the spring for five years.


N.B.: If a sentence contains when and has the simple past in both clauses the action in the when clause happens first.


- I stood under a tree when it began to rain.

- When she heard a strange noise, she got up to investigate.





The future verb phrase is used to express an action that will take place in the future. In American English, will is used for all persons. Shall may also be used for the first person singular or plural in formal speech or writing. However, in today American English shall is seldom used. Will is often contracted with the subject pronoun: (I’ll, He'll…..).

Shall is used with pronouns I and We for questions suggesting some activity or making offers or polite request or command.

Examples: - Shall we have dinner downtown tonight?

- Shall we get this place cleaned up before the major arrives?

- Shall we dance? (a request to dance )

- Shall I pick you up at eight tonight? (an offer).

The uses of the simple future tense are:

1) Will versus be going to:

To express a prediction, either will or be going to is used.

When the speaker is making a prediction (a statement about something he / she thinks will be true or will occur in the future either will or be gong to is used.

Examples:  - According to the weather report, it will be cloudy tomorrow.

 - According to the weather report, it is going to be cloudy tomorrow

2) To express a prior plan only be going to is used.

When the speaker is expressing a prior plan (something he intends to do in the future because in the past he has made a plan or decision to do it), only be going to is used.

Examples:   - A: Why did you buy this paint?

 - B: I am going to paint my bedroom tomorrow.

3) Sometimes will suggest more than simple futurity; it implies that the subject (doer) is psychologically willing to perform the action described by the main verb.

Examples:  -A: The phone is ringing.

-B: I'll get it.

-A: Will you help me lift this?

-B: I'll be glad to. (I am willing to help you)

4) Using the present progressive and the simple present to express the future:

The present progressive may be used to express future time when the idea of the sentence concerns a planned event or definite intention…

Examples: - My wife has an appointment with a doctor; she is seeing Dr. North next week.

- John is leaving at noon tomorrow.

* The simple present can also be used to express future time in sentences that concerns events that are on a definite schedule or time table. These sentences usually contain future time word.

Examples:  - The museum opens at ten tomorrow.

- Class begins next week.

- John's plane arrives at 6:05 PM next week.





The present progressive tense is formed with the present tense forms of the auxiliary be and the ing form of the verb.


Note: This tense is sometimes referred to as the present continuous.

Examples: - I am studying English now.

- You are listening to music.

- She is working on my car.

- It is raining now.

The uses of the present progressive tense are:

1) To express an activity that is in progress at the moment of speaking. This is the real or actual present. It implies that the activity will probably end at some point in the future. It is frequently used with the adverb now.

Examples:   - Mom is getting dinner now.

- Don and his uncle are playing cards on the patio.

- You are reading this sentence now.

- She is doing her homework right now.


2) To express an activity that occurred in the past, is going on at the time of speaking, and will probably continue into the future for an unspecified length of time, which can be of short or relatively long duration.

Examples: - Mary is studying music in New York.

- Fred is working for an oil company.

- The state is repairing the major high ways.


3) To express an activity that will take place in the future; usually a future time word, phrase, or clause is used…


-The new commander is arriving next week.

-We are going to that movie after supper.

-We are buying a new car as soon as the new models come out.

4) To express a frequently repeated or habitual action that is usually expressed by the simple present tense, it is used in combination with the adverb always…


- My young son is always learning new things.

- Fred and his family are always going somewhere.


NB: when the present progressive is used with always, it sometimes suggests dissatisfaction or disapproval on the part of the speaker…


- Wake up! You are always sleeping.

- I'm always / forever / constantly picking up your dirty socks.




The past progressive tense gives the idea that an action was in progress during a particular time. It is formed by the past tense of the verb to be plus the ing form of the verb.


Note: this tense is sometimes referred to as the past continuous…





The uses of the past progressive tense are:


1)            We use the past progressive when both actions occurred at the same time, but an action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occurred.


- I was walking down the street when it began to rain.

- While I was walking down the street, it began to rain.

- He was reading the newspaper when I asked the question.


2)            Sometimes the past progressive is used in both parts of a sentence when two actions are in progress simultaneously.


- While I was studying in one room of our apartment, my roommate was having a party in the other room.

- She was studying while he was sleeping.


3)            In some cases, the simple past and the past progressive give almost the same meaning.


- It rained this morning.

- It was raining this morning.





The future progressive expresses an activity that will be in progress at or up to a time in the future. It's formed with: will + be + ing verb form. This tense is not used too frequently. The adverb soon is often used with it…



- Right now I'm sitting in class .at the same time tomorrow I will be sitting in class.

- I'll be calling you sometime this week.

- We will be seeing you soon.

- I will be playing tennis this week.


The progressive form of “be going to”:


Be going to + be ing verb form.….


- She is going to be traveling next work.

- Don't call me at night because. I won't be there. I'm going to studying at the library.



Sometimes there is little or no difference between the future progressive and the simple future especially when the future events will occur at an indefinite time in the future…



- Lunch is not ready, we will be eating in a few minutes.

- Lunch is not ready, we will eat in a few minutes.

- Don't get impatient, she will be coming soon.

- Don't get impatient, she will come soon.





The present perfect tense expresses the idea that something happened or never happened before now at an unspecified time in the past. The exact time it happened is not important. It's formed   with: have or has plus the past participle of the main verb


-They have moved to a new apartment.

-Have you ever visited Mexico?

-I have already seen that movie.

-I have never seen snow.


The present perfect tense is used for an action which began in the past and has continued to the time of speaking or for an action which took place in the past, but we still feel or observe its results in the present.


The uses of the present perfect are:


1)      To express a continuous activity that started at a stated time in the past and continues at the present moment of speaking. The preposition or conjunction since is often used.


- He has been here since 1950.

- She has spoken English since she was a child.

- I have studied French since 1990.


2)      To express an activity that has lasted from an indefinite time in the past up to the moment of speaking, the preposition for is commonly used…


- I have been here for about half an hour.

- They have been here for several years.

- He has studied English for a long time.


3)      The present perfect also expresses the repetition of an action before now.The exact time of each repetition is not important.


- We have had four tests this semester.

- I have written my wife a letter every other day for the last two weeks.

- I have flown on an airplane many times.

- He has appeared on television occasionally.


4) To refer to an action that has been completed a short time before the moment of speaking.


- He has just left.

- The students have already been briefed.

- He has worked very hard this week.

- They have been to town.






The past perfect tense is formed with had and the past participle of the main verb.


- I had gone.

- We had arrived.

- You had come.

- She had eaten.



The past perfect tense expresses an activity that was completed before an other activity or time in the past.


- My parents had already eaten by the time I got home.

- Until yesterday, I had never heard about it.

- The thief simply walked i, someone had forgotten to lock the door.

- I had finished my work before the captain came.



Notice that: in the above examples the past perfect tense is used in the main clause and the simple past tense is used in the subordinate clause. However; in some constructions the second clause is omitted, but the time element is implied.


- He had never seen a movie before. ( until that moment )

- They had never heard such beautiful music. ( until that moment )

- They had already heard the story. ( before that time )



If either before or after is used in the sentence the past perfect is often not necessary, because the time relationship is already clear, the simple past may be used.


- Sam had already left when we got home.

- Sam had left when we got home.

- Sam left before we got home.

- After the guest had left I went to bed.

- After the guest left I went to bed.






The future perfect tense is formed with will followed by have and the past participle of the main verb. It is used to indicate an event or condition which will be completed before another event or specified time in the future. The future perfect tense is used with the action that happens first, the other action is often introduced by a time expression beginning with when, before or by the time. If a time clause is used, it will be in the present.



- I will have finished my work before you arrive.

- She will have left by the time her parents get here.

- We will have finished our work before next Friday.

- I will have finished my homework by the time I go out on a date tonight.


The time expressed in the future perfect can be one that begins in the past and ends in the future.


- Joe will have lived in France for five years when you visit him next march.




The present perfect progressive tense is formed with have or has + been + the ing form of the main verb.


This tense is used to indicate the duration of an activity that began in the past and continue to the present. When this tense has this meaning it is used with time words such as: for, since, all morning, all day, all week




- I have been sitting here since seven o'clock.

- She has been waiting here for two days.

- You have been studying for five straight hours. Why don't you take a break?

- It has been raining all day. It is still raining right now.



When the tense is used without any specific mention of time, it expresses a general activity in progress recently or lately.



- I have been thinking about changing my idea.

- All of the students have been studying hard. Final exams start next week.

- My back hurts, so I have been sleeping on the floor lately. The floor is too soft.


With certain verbs (live, work, teach…) there is title or no difference in meaning between the two tenses when since or for is used.



- I have lived here since 1970.

- I have been living here since 1970.

- He has worked at the same store for ten years.

- He has been working at the same store for ten years.



The past perfect progressive tense is formed with had + been + the ing form of the main verb



- I had been studying.

- You had been writing.

- She had been working.

- They had been sleeping.


The past perfect progressive is used to emphasize the continuous, or durative nature of an activity that has lasted from a time in the past up to another specified past action. Like the present perfect, the past perfect progressive is used in the main clause and the past tense is used in the subordinate clause. It is many times used in narrative. (the telling of a story)…



- The police had been looking for the criminal for two years before they caught him.

- The patient had been waiting in the emergency room for almost an hour before a doctor finally treated her.

- He finally comes at six o'clock. I had been waiting for him since four thirty.

- He had been going to the university for two years when he decided to quit and get a job.





The future perfect progressive tense is formed with will have + been + the ing form of the main verb



- I will have been studying.

- We will have been teaching.

- She will have been working.


The future perfect progressive is used to express an action in progress before an other activity or specific time in the future. Like the future perfect, the future perfect progressive is used with time expressions. If a time clauses is used, it will be in the present.



- I will have been sleeping by the time he gets home. (I will go to bed at ten PM. He will get home at midnight. At midnight I will be sleeping.)

- When professor Jones retires next month, he will have been teaching for 45 years.

- By the time we get there, they will probably have been playing tennis for several hours already.





A verb is a word which expresses an act, occurrence, or mood of being.

Verbs are classified according to their use as :


- Transitive verbs : That should be followed by an object to complete their meaning:


- Rachid plays tennis.


- Intransitive verbs : that are not followed by object. The action of the verb is not received directly by an object:


- The baby cries.


- Linking or copulative verbs : They are not action verbs They can be :

* Any form of the verb « to be »:                       She  is an actress.

* « Sensing » verbs, such as feel - taste-look - smell-hear:  

She looks beautiful.

* « appearing » verbs, such as seem - become - remain:      

                               He   seems strong.




In English grammar there are three moods which control the verb forms used to express various attitudes, ideas, or feelings we have about the subject.


1)  The indicative  mood is used to taste a fact or asks a question either positively or negatively:


- Mark works hard when he feels well.

- Is it time for lunch?


2)  The imperative mood is used for commands or requests. It has one tense, the present :


- Leave here immediately.

- Please don't go.


3) The subjunctive mood is used to express: conditions, wishes, impossibilities, concessions.


The subjunctive mood differs from the indicative mood in the attitude toward reality which it expresses. When we use the indicative mood we consider reality as something capable of being known and described, because we believe that our statement express facts and we expect that our questions will be answered with facts or reasonable opinions. On the other hand, when we use the subjunctive we know that we aren't stating facts, but we are only expressing some attitudes either reasonable or unreasonable.


When a dependent clause is introduced by :  until, when, before, as soon as, unless, as long as, or while, the clause takes the present tense to describe the future.




- The active voice shows that the subject of the sentence is the actor or doer of the action or doer of the action. 


- The wind destroyed several trees.


- The passive voice shows that the subject of the sentence is being acted upon. 


- Several trees were destroyed by the wind.



        Auxiliaries are structure words that function with main verbs to form verb phrases.

Some of the most common auxiliary or helping verbs which are used with main verbs to show tense, mood and voice are:


be                     have                 shall                  will

may                   might                        can           must

ought                 should               would                could

do                     need                 let                    dare


- We use should to express general obligation, expectation, or condition.

- Use would to express habitual or customary action or possibility.

- Use must, ought to, should or have to express necessity or strong obligation.

- Can is used to show ability but may is used to show permission or possible future action.

- Repetition of auxiliary verbs may be avoided by using too or so:


(poor)         - I went to school on foot and Sue went to school on foot.

(better)     - I went to school on foot and so did Sue.

(poor)         - She practices yoga and her son practices yoga.

(better)       - She practices yoga and her son does too.


- Have and get are used as causative auxiliaries to show that someone caused the performance of some actions: 


- Did you have your oil checked at the garage?

- Yes, I got it checked last week.




«Adjectives» are used to modify Nouns but «Adverbs» are used to modify Verbs.

a)  Many adjectives become adverbs adding « ly »:


- soft / softly

- beautiful / beautifully )

b) Some words can be used as adjectives and adverbs with no change:

- fast - hard - love - late - early


1) place adverbs of frequency before the main ‘’verb’’, but after the verb ‘’to be’’: Examples:

- She          seldom     complains.

- She  is     often                late for class.


3)  Place adverbs of time at the beginning of a sentence or the end:


- Yesterday                we saw him.

- We saw him              yesterday.


4)  Adverbs should not separate verbs from their direct objects: 


- I will meet today the president.                       (wrong).

- I will meet (v) the president (o) today (adv). (correct).


5) Adjectives usually precede the nouns they modify ( a bright sky - a beautiful flower....), but when several adjective modify one noun the following order or sequence of adjective must be taken in consideration:

« Determiners (a, his, an, our,...) + Ordinal numbers (first, second,...) + Cardinal numbers (one, two,...) + Descriptive (nice, expensive,...) + Size or shape (big, narrow,...) + Condition (warm, famous,...) + Color (yellow, red,...) + NOUNExamples:

- His first two expensive red suits.

- One of my favorite old white and black TV programs.




I)                  INTRODUCTION:

Make, have and get can be used to express the idea that “X” causes “Y” to do something. When they are used as causative verbs, their meanings are similar but not identical.

X makes Y do something.    (simple form)

X has     Y do something.     (simple form)

X gets   Y to do something. (infinitive)

Examples :


(a) I made my brother carry my suitcase.

(b) I had my brother carry my suitcase.

(c) I got my brother to carry my suitcase.


      In (a): My brother had no choice. I insisted that he carry my suitcase.

      In (b): My brother carried my suitcase simply because I asked him to.

      In (c): I managed to persuade my brother to carry my suitcase.     


II)               CAUSATIVE MAKE


It is followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive. (INCORRECT: She made him to clean his room.) Make give the idea that “X” forces “Y” to do something.




It is followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive. (INCORRECT: I had him to repair the leak). Have give the idea that “X” requests “Y” to do something.


I had the plumber repair my leak.

Jane had the waiter bring her some tea.


IV)              CAUSATIVE GET


It is followed by an infinitive. Get gives the idea that “X” persuades “Y” to do something.

The students got the teacher to dismiss class early.

Jack got his friends to play soccer with him after school.


The past participle is used after have and get to give a passive meaning. In this case, there is usually little or no difference in meaning between have and get.

I had my watch repaired (by someone).

I got my watch repaired (by someone).





Final d and t problems: When the final –ed is added to regular verb to form the past tense, it may be pronounced one of three ways: d, t or ed.




A) Regular verbs ending in an unvoiced consonant: p, f, k, s, x, etc.:

the final ed is pronounced as tExample:



Simple verb.

Past tense.

Final sound.














B) Regular verbs ending in a voiced consonant : n, l, r, b,  etc. :

the final ed is pronounced as –dExample:


Simple verb.

Past tense.

Final sound.














C) Regular verbs ending in the sound of –t or –d :

the final ed is pronounced as a separate syllable ending in a d sound…Example:


Simple verb.

Past tense.

Final sound.













D) Regular verbs ending in a vowel sound:

the final ed is pronounced as –dExample:


Simple verb.

Past tense.

Final sound.