Rules of English Prepositions- Summary and Quiz





A preposition is a word that shows a relationship between its Object and another word in a sentence. We often classify them according to their usage in a sentence.


Since prepositions require objects, be sure that all pronouns that are objects of prepositions are in the objective case:


(poor)   * She  was  asked  to  choose   between    Jack  and  I.

(better) * She  was  asked  to  choose   between    Jack  and  me.


This section lists the most frequently used prepositions and provides examples of their use. As you review the list note that each preposition has several meanings and is used in several different ways.




In the next nine units you will complete a series of exercises that review the usage of the English prepositions. This section lists the most frequently used prepositions and provides examples of their use. As you review the lists, note that each preposition has several meanings and is used in several different ways.


You should study the list thoroughly. Experience has show that prepositions are one of the major vocabulary problems in learning a language.


When they are used in simple basic sentences, they normally function with their simplest meanings. However, as you progress and use more complex sentences and a wider range of vocabulary, you need to use more complex prepositions and prepositional phrases and expressions. Study the example sentences and form your own sentences using the prepositions the same way.




Prepositions can be classified according to the various types of functions or relationships they express, (place, position, direction, time, ).



1 ) IN :

In  is used with parts of the day, with months (when the month alone is used ; may include year but not days), with seasons, and specific weeks. It’s used for longer periods of time or to mark the length of time it takes or took to complete an action. It’s also used with years enclosure, being surrounded by:


- He reads the newspaper in the evening.

- The conference in February has been cancelled.

- We were married in June.

- The United States was two hundred years old in 1976.

- That building was completed in 1962.

- They go swimming in the summer.

- In Europe - In the barracks - In the evening - in the desk

(Note -  In can also mean during a specified period of time or at the end of a certain amount of time, starting now.)


- Can you drive to California in a day ?

- We’ll see you in a week.

2 ) ON :

On is used with days of the week, months, (as long as they include a specific date as well), and with the date alone.

On is used with dates that have numerals (numbers) - In contact with the surface of.


- We went to Dallas on Friday.

- Suzanne was born on April 2, 1927.

- The last time I saw my brother was on the first of May.

- I have an appointment with the dentist on the tenth.

- On the table  -  on the sidewalk

3 ) AT :

At refers or is used to express a specific time of day or night expressed in hours, or clock time, and to other points of time during the day, specific place : Examples:

- I have to go to the lab at 07:30.

- The meeting will begin at 1:30.

- We must wake up at sunrise and go to bed at sunset.

- They are at the movies.

- At the moment I was completely confused.

- At that point, at the beginning, at the end, at the same time.


About and Around show approximate time.


- My watch isn’t correct, but I think it’s about  /  around 04:30

- Dinner should be ready about  /  around 06:05

5 ) AFTER :

Means later than - behind - in search of - as a result of.


- I will not be so busy after next week.

- I’ll see you after lunch.

- See you after class

- I’ll go after you

- After what happened, he won’t allow to go


Before and after are opposite.

Before means earlier than - ahead of in time - space or order.


- Today is Monday. The day before yesterday was Saturday.

- You must pick up your tickets before 7:30.

- You must finish before noon

- He arrived before Bill

After means later than.

Examples: - The day after tomorrow is Wednesday.

7 ) BY :

By followed by a period of time means not later than. It indicates that an action will be finished at or before the time stated - beside - at the side of

By is often used with the future perfect tense.


- I have an appointment at 06:00, so I should leave by 05:30.

- I hope to finish my assignment by Friday afternoon.

- You should pay your bills by the first of the month.

- You must finish this test by two o’clock.

- She is sitting by Tom

8 ) DURING :

During expresses duration, indicating that an action lasts or lasted throughout an entire period of time. It can also indicate an action that occurred at some moment in a period of time.


- Paul swam everyday during his vacation.

- The electricity went off during the night.

- We’ll be on vacation during August.

9)FOR versus SINCE :

For followed by a period of time shows the length of an occurrence. While since tells when an action begin, both are associated with the present perfect tense. Examples:

- They have been in a meeting  for  03 hours              (duration of time)

- They have been in a meeting  since  01:30              (specific time).

For and since are used with the present perfect but :

# Use for + duration of time:


- For five hours 

- For thirty days

- For ten minutes......

# Use since + beginning of time:


- Since  1991

- Since five o’clock

- Since January......

10 ) FROM...TO  / FROM... TILL /  UNTIL :

Those expressions show the beginning and the end points of a period of time. (To, till and until are interchangeable) Examples:

- The exhibit will last  from .May 02  to  /  till  /  until  August 30.

- The hottest months are  from .July .to  /  till  /  until  October.

- Let’s stay until ten o’clock.




1 ) ACROSS :

Across shows movement from one side to another.


- You can fly across the ocean in a few hours on a supersonic jet.

- Teddy got into trouble for running across the street without looking both ways.

- Let’s walk across the park.

2 ) ALONG :

Along shows parallel movement from one end of something toward the other end. Examples:

- Tommy drove along the road toward town.

- Dan rode his horse along the fence looking for rabbits.

3 ) AROUND :

Around indicates a motion that surrounds an area or all sides or nearly all side. It may have the meaning of going in various directions without purpose. Examples:

- It was exciting watching the horse’s race around the track.

- The children ran around the yard playing  ‘’hide and seek’’.

Around means in a circular motion. Besides this meaning, it also implies motion in a variety of directions or motion to avoid something - Surrounding, encircling. Examples:

- Drive around the block.

- We walked around the town sightseeing.

- Drive around that big rock.

- We sit around the table

4 ) BY :

By means to go past without stopping or to stop only for a short time before continuing.


- John plans to stop by the grocery store on his way home.

- We passed by Sam’s house while riding our bikes.

5 ) FROM :

From expresses separation, often tells where something started, off of. Examples:

- Washington is 250 miles from New York.

- He came straight home from school.

- He jumped from the falling ladder.


To be from is used to state the place of origin of a person or thing.) Examples:

- Where’s he from.

He’s from California.

- Is that coffee from Brazil ?

No, it’s from Colombia.

6 ) OFF :

Off indicates movement away from or down from.



- Rob took his hat off his head as he entered the room.

- Rob felt off the ladder as he was painting the house.

7 ) ON  /  ONTO  /  IN  /  INTO  /  TO :

On and in are used to show a place or destination while into and onto are used to show movement and motion toward or to an area.


- The students are already in class.

- The teacher is coming into the class.

- The policeman jumped onto his motorcycle and sped away.

Into expresses the idea of entering. It’s often used to replace IN in everyday speech. (like In, but into is used to talk about directions and destinations) Examples:

- He went into the house.

- He dived into the pool.

- The ball rolled into the goal

Onto has the same relationship with on that into has with in. It indicates motion to the surface or to the surface of something (like on but onto is used to talk about directions and destinations). On is often used instead of onto, though careful speakers differentiate the two.


- The actor walked onto the stage.

- The car pulled onto the highway.

- The cat jumped onto the table.

- How does the cat get onto the roof ?

- He walked onto the stage.

8 ) OVER :

Over shows movement above and from one side to the other side of something.

Over indicates motion up and then down again, to overcome or pass an obstacle - Higher in position, authority,...

Examples: - The runner jumped over the hurdles effortlessly.

- The sheep jumped over the fence to escape.

- The sky is over heads.

Note : Over also indicates motion above something, from one side to the other.

9 ) PAST :

Example: - He walks past Mary’s house everyday.



Through allows motion in one side and out the other side. While throughout means in every part of something.

Examples:  - Water travels through pipes to reach our homes.

- The heart pumps blood throughout the body.

11 ) TOWARD :


- Are you gong toward town?

12 ) UP  /  DOWN :

Up refers to movement (vertical direction) at a higher place or level.

Down refers to movement (vertical direction) at a lower place or level. Examples:

- Paul skied down the slope at record speed.

- Alice was out of breath from running up and down the stairs.

- It’s harder to run up stairs than down them.

Note :   These words are also used in connection with horizontal direction.

If the street is on a hill, then down is used for the descending direction and vice versa. If, however, the street is level, little more than local custom or individual preference determines which preposition to use.

Often up is used to mean north. If up is used in reference to a street, it means toward the higher number.





1 ) IN :

IN refers to a position that is partially enclosed or surrounded by an area having three dimensions such as a room or a building (by something). It’s also used to show a relationship to a place or area having boundaries such as a field, a city or a country.

Examples: - The supervisor is in her office.

- The children played in the park.

- I left my car keys in the desk drawer.

- They are in Europe this summer.

- They are in their barracks.

- The paper is in the desk.

- Tom is in the pool

- You’ll find the telephone in the hall.


Examples: - There was a picture of Linda in the newspaper.

- John served two years in the army.

- We stood in line three hours to get tickets for the concert.

- I was startled by my reflection in the mirror.

- Paris is one of the most exciting cities in the world.

- There are dark clouds in the sky.

- The children were told not to play in the street.

Note :

In is used with cities, countries and large divisions of countries; At is used in reference to smaller places.

2 ) ON :

ON indicates contact with a surface, which is often the top of some objects. It’s not necessary for the    surface to be flat or horizontal.

On can also show an attachment to its object.

Examples: - The notebook is on the desk.

- The fly was on the ceiling.

- The picture is hanging on the wall.

- The baby is crawling on the floor.

- The sports section is on page seven of the newspaper.

- There’s a notice about the picnic on the bulletin board.

- Margaret wore rings on all her fingers.

- The dog is resting on the rug.

- You should walk on the sidewalk.



- The lobby is on the first floor of the hotel.

- New Orleans was built on the Mississippi river.

- They’ve lived on a farm all their lives.

- The children are playing games on the sidewalk.

- Is there anything good to watch on T.V ?

- I heard a pretty song on the radio this morning.

- Linda’s lying on the couch and talking on the phone.

# Contrast - In vs.  On.  We sit in a chair, but on a couch or sofa.  We say that a house is on a street, avenue, road, etc.  In the street means  ’in the roadway, where cars go’’.  On the road means traveling.


3 ) AT :

AT refers to the position of a person or thing in relation to a general area or to a point having no dimensions.


- The children will be at school until three o’clock.

- Dad will be at work until five o’clock.

- Sheila waited at the bus stop for an hour.

- The mail-man is at the door.

- Please send a taxi to pick me up at the airport.

- Turn left at the fifth street bridge.

AT means near or particular place or time.


- They are at the movies.

- When will you be at work ?



- Everybody I know was at the party.

- There were thousands of teenagers at the concert.

- Jimmy enjoyed the clowns at the circus.

- All the executives are at a conference.

- Suzanne prefers to study at home instead of the library.

- The teenagers are at the lake this weekend.  ( near: beside ).

- Dad’s fishing at the river. ( near: beside ).

- A sailor may be away from his family for long periods of time when he is at sea.

- During the American civil war, the north and south were at war with each other.

4) ‘’IN’’  versus  ‘’ON’’ :

Note the usage of in and on relation to area (in) and surface (on). Generally, in refer to an area beneath the surface or to an area with boundaries, on relates to contact with the surface or top of something.


- Rachid’s ball landed in the tall grass and was difficult to hit.  (the grass is tall and forms an area).

- Tom’s golf ball landed on the grass near the seventeenth hole.  (The grass forms a surface).

- He looked in the mirror to see how his new suit fit.

- Steam from the shower left a film of moisture on the mirror.

5 ) ‘’IN’’  versus  ‘’AT’’’ :

Both  in  and  at  can be used in reference to buildings.


- Paul is in the museum or Paul is at the museum.

However in denotes the meaning of inside a building while at gives a more general location and could mean inside or outside.

IN is used with names of cities, states, countries, and continents.

AT is used with a place smaller than a city or town such as an airport, states, or library.






IN is used with the city, state, and country.

Examples: - Ali has lived in Texas for a few months.

ON is used with streets, roads, etc... when no number is given. This includes street names, which are ordinal numbers.


- Paul lives on Green Street.

- I live on Second Avenue.

AT is used when a street number is included.


- Paul lives at 32 Green Street.

- I live at 795 second Avenue.


IN is used with chairs and other types of furniture or seats that are enclosed with arms and sides.


- Mom relaxed in her armchair during a break from housework.

ON is generally used with items of furniture that do not have arms and sides or that are long and flat.


- Johnny sat on a straight chair in the principal’s office.

- Don sat on the bed and tied his shoes.

AT is used in relation to furniture such as tables, desks, and counters. Examples:

- We sat at the breakfast table to drink coffee.

- Mr. Simmons worked at his desk all morning.

8 ) ABOUT :

About means on all sides of, approximately.


- It cost about five dollars.

- Class ended about five o’clock.

- His students gathered about him.

Note :

Sometimes about means among or concerning.


- What’s the book about ?

- I think I lost it somewhere about here.

9 ) ABOVE :

Above refers to a fixed position.


- Put the picture above the tire place.


ACROSS (FROM)  and  OPPOSITE mean on or to the other side of someone or something else; directly facing.


- City Bank is across the street from Robert’s restaurant.

- The restaurant is opposite the bank.

Across  means opposite from, on the other side of.


- The house is located across the bridge.

- They live across town.

- They live across the street from us.

- My room is across the hall from his.


11 ) AFTER :

After means behind, in search of, as a result of.


- We’ll go in after the people in front of us.

- Two comes after one.

- After dinner we’ll go to the movies.

- He went downstairs after his wife.

- After what happened today, the captain will not allow us to take leave.

12 ) AGAINST :

AGAINST refers to touching or contact with a surface, often for support. Examples:

- Jane leaned against the tree and read her book.

- The mop is leaning against the wall.

- Put the chairs against the door to keep it open.

- The chair is against the door to keep it open.

13 ) AHEAD OF :

It is used when something is moving or arranged in order according to time - In front of - Before in time or movement.


-They were ahead of us in line.

- The car ahead of us is out of gas.

- He was ahead of me in line yesterday when we went to eat.

14 ) ALONG :

Along refers to a position in a line parallel with the length of something. Examples:

- Alice spent the morning window-shopping along rodeo drive.

- The crowd stood along the street and watched the parade.

- We walked along road.

- Road signs are placed along the road.

- We planted flowers along the road.

15 ) AROUND :

Around refers to a position on all sides of (Surrounding), encircling, or in area of.


- We spent the evening, sitting around the table playing cards.

- We built a fence around the backyard for privacy.

- We were sitting around the table talking.

- They are putting flower beds all around the house.

- She was wearing a piece of red cloth around her head.

16 ) BEFORE :

Means ahead of in time, space, or order.  In front of, into sight or presence.  


- He appeared before the judge.

- He paused before the door.

- John went on leave before Bill did.






BETWEEN generally related one object to two other objects(In the space separating two things).


- Dick stand between Harry and Tom.

- He walked between two chairs.

- He’ll arrive between one and two o’clock.

AMONG relates one object to more than two other objects, often the number of objects is vague or indefinite (With or surrounded by more than two elements, in the midst of).


- He lived in a little house among the trees.

- An argument broke out among the player on the field.

- You’re among friends.

- He walked among the crowd.

- There’s one apple among these bananas.

18 ) BESIDE  /  BY  /  NEXT TO :

BESIDE  ,  BY  and  NEXT TO   mean  ‘’at the side of’’


- Alice sat beside Ted at the cafe.     (no one between them).

- My hat is on the rock by my raincoat       (nothing is between them).

BESIDE  ,  BY-mean at the side of.


- Mary is standing by Tom.

- The student is beside that instructor.

- The car is parking by the mailbox.

NEXT TO means beside.


- He stood next to her.

- The chair is next to the table.

- The car is parked next to the fence.



19 ) BEYOND :

BEYOND refers to a position on the far side of (farther away) or on the other side of. Examples:

- The town is just beyond the curve in the road.

- Mother warned the children not to go beyond the garden gate.

- I live beyond the bridge.

- We went beyond your house.

20 ) CLOSE TO  /  NEAR :

CLOSE TO  and  NEAR refer to a position close in distance to another. Means not far from or short distance from.


- They sat close to the fire to keep warm.

- We built a fire near the tent.

CLOSE TO means near, the immediate vicinity.


- The TV is close to the record player.

- He stood close to the door.

NEAR means close to, not far from, the immediate vicinity.


- Your books are near that desk.

- Do you live near me ?

21 ) FAR FROM :

Means a long distance away.

Examples:  - Los Angeles is far from New York.

- Is the BX far from here ?

- The garage is not far from the house.



Both in back of and in the back of are used to show a position directly behind or at the rear of, however, in back of means behind but outside while in the back of means at the rear part but inside.


- Laura sat in the back of the canoe.

- I prefer to sit in the back of the plane near the bathrooms.

- I planted trees in back of my house.

IN BACK OF  means behind.


- Don’t stand in back of the car.

- He parked the car in back of the store.

- We have a fence in back of the house.

IN THE BACK Of  means in the rear part of but inside.


- Sit in the back of the car.

- The elevator is in the back of the store.

- The pencils are in the back of the drawer.


Both in front of  and  in the front of are used to show a position directly ahead of or in the front part of, however, in the front of means the inside front part, when in front of means the outside front part.


- The motorist stood in front of his car waiting for the president          (outside)

- Alice sat in front of Bill.                                         (outside)

- I like to sit in the front of the bus, behind the driver.        (inside)

- Laura sat in the front of the canoe.                                (inside)

IN FRONT OF  means the same as ahead of, but does not refer to time or movement; before.


- He stood in front of the desk.

- The chair is in front of the desk.

- His car is in front of mine

24 ) INSIDE :

Inside means within, the interior of.


- John is inside the house.

- The gift is inside the box.

25 ) OFF :

OFF indicates a position away from another object, or separated from it, to be no longer attached  (it’s the opposite of on).


- We live about three blocks off the main bank.

- The house fell off the table..

- The shade is off the lamp.

- Their house is off the main road.


26 ) ON  TOP  Of :

On top of refers to a position on the highest point or surface of something. Examples:

- The birds are on  top  of the house.

- Box ‘’C’’ is on  top  of box ‘’B’’.

27 ) OUTSIDE :

Means the exterior of.


- The dog is outside the house.

- The car is parked outside the garage.

28 ) OVER  /  ABOVE :

Both OVER and ABOVE can refer to a position higher up in a perpendicular direction from.


They are often interchangeable in this contest.

- The family lives in an apartment   over / above   the store.

- My grandfather’s portrait hangs   over / above   the fireplace.

OVER, ABOVE - Higher than, up in a perpendicular direction from; superior to in rank, position, or authority. During, while engaged in.


- His ECL was above the average.

- The sky over our heads was cloudy.

- The rank of captain is above the rank of airman.

- We can discuss the election over dinner.

- He will preside over the meeting.

However over can express the idea of a ‘’covering’’  (with or without contact with its object) used to protect, to guard, or conceal. Above can’t be used in this contest.


- The umbrella over our heads protected us.

- Dad put a cover over the car to protect it.

- Jim put a newspaper over his face and sleep.

ABOVE can mean at a higher level, elevation, or degree.

Both Over and Above can indicate higher rank or authority. But over can refer to an immediate superior while above cannot. In this contest, above simply has the meaning of higher than. Examples:

- A colonel is above a second Lieutenant but a captain is over a Lieutenant.

- Major lee is directly over Captain Smith.


Throughout means in all parts of.


- The fire spread throughout the school.

- It snowed throughout Texas.


These words indicate a position lower than another :

BENEATH and UNDERNEATH are considered more formal, and their use is less common.

UNDER and UNDERNEATH can mean covered by and may be touching. below can’t be used in this contest.



- Our cat sleeps under / underneath the bed             (not touching it)

- She kept his picture under / underneath her pillow.  (touching).

BELOW refers to a position at a lower level, elevation, or degree.


- The Dead Sea is below sea level.

- Jim’s grades fell below average.

BELOW means lower than but not directly under.


- The climbers stopped 300m below the top of the mountain.

Both under and below can mean ‘’lower in rank’’ under refer to one who is immediately junior in rank while below does not.

BENEATH can indicate being covered by something and hidden from view. Examples:

- His sister hid her diary beneath her pillow  (diary : daily writing what happen to you).

UNDER , UNDERNEATH, BENEATH - Lower than, down in a perpendicular direction from; lower than required;  lower in authority.


- The book is under the table.

- The supervisor has eleven men under him.

- He can’t vote because he’s under 18.



1 ) FOR  :

For : Expresses continuous time, it is used with an hour (or a part of an hour), a day, a week, a season, a year.  It refers to a specific action or occasion which may or may not be repeated.  It is often followed by a number or the articles ‘’a’’ and ‘’an’’. It usually tells exactly how long.

Examples:       - I have been there for   two weeks.

- I have been there for   three months.

- I have been there for   five years.

- I have been there for   ten minutes.

- I have been there for   an hour.

- I have been there for   many days.

- I have been there for   a short time.

- I have been there for   some time.

- I have been there for   a summer.

- I have been there for   just a few minutes.

  2 ) DURING  :

During :  Is different from for because it expresses non continuous or erratic time.  It is different from for because it expresses habitual action.


- I hope to see you during my vacation.

- He did a lot of sightseeing during his visit.

- During the day, you can call her at the office.


3 ) SINCE  :

Since:  Is different from either during or for because since expresses when an action began.  It is normally used with present perfect and past perfect tenses.  You must decide how long.  The sentence should tell you exactly how long if since is to be used. (Except with last or ago).


- I have been there since last month.

- I have been there since last week.

- I have been there since last year.

- I have been there since last fall.

- I have been there since December.

- I have been there since Christmas.

- I have been there since 1941.

- I have been there since seven o’clock.

- I have been there since two weeks ago.

- I have been there since that time.


The Difference:


- He was in France for the month of July.

- He was in France during the month of July.

- He has been in France since the month of July.




These prepositions answer the question on how or in what way something is done.

1 ) WITH  /  WITHOUT  /  IN :

As prepositions of instruments, with, without and in can refer to a device used to perform an action. Examples:

- She mixed the ingredients with a spoon.

- He couldn’t open the door without a key.

- You can’t leave the class without the teacher’s consent.

- This assignment should be written in pencils.

2 ) BY :

By shows the mean used to do something or the agent who performs an action.


- Mary goes to work by bus.

- Send your confirmation by letter.

- I had hoped to travel to Europe by ship.

3 ) LIKE :

Like refers a manner.


- She plays the piano like an artist.





We often classify prepositions according to meaning. Look at the following meanings

1 ) Purpose :

Examples :

- This is a good place for a picnic.

- This hospital is for women only.

- Do you sell books for young children ?

2 ) Possession or association ( relationship ) :


Examples :

- The children of our neighbors are well behaved.

- Take John with you.

- The rules of this school are quit strict.


3 ) Measure :


Examples :

- He sometimes drinks eight cups of coffee before noon.

- Does this market sell fruit by the pound ?

- This recipe calls for two pounds of beef.


4 ) Cause :


Examples :

- They refused to speak to each other because of their divorce.

- We couldn’t have our class picnic because of the rain.


5 ) Similarity :


Examples :

- This material feels like silk.

- Her daughter Isn’t like her at all.


6 ) Accompaniment :


Examples :

- I ride to work with Mr John.

- The students together with their families enjoyed our picnic.

- Marcie along with all her children crowded into the tiny car.


7 ) Fixed expressions :


Examples :

- Do you have any extra note books on hand ?

- They were told to shoot the robber on sight.

- Did he break the window on purpose ?






1 ) BY  /  OF  /  PER :

As prepositions of measurement those prepositions measure the quantity or the amount of something.

Examples : - The manager is paid by the month not by the hour.

- Bring home a half-gallon of milk.

- Gasoline averages $1.25 per gallon.

2 ) EXCEPT :

Means not including, but.

Examples : - Everyone is going except Bill.

- Except for the man without shoes, you are all invited inside.

- Answer all the questions except number 5.

3 ) FOR :

As a preposition of purpose, for answers the question ‘’why’’ something is done.

Examples : - Carol swims every day for exercise.

- Ben is returning to college for his master’s degree.

4 ) IN  /  INTO  /  OUT OF :

As a general rule, in, into and out of are used with small vehicles in which someone can’t stand up or walk.

Examples : - The policeman jumped into his car and sped away.

- We got out of the taxi; at the bus station.

- Linda listens to music in her car.

5 ) ON  /  OFF :

ON and OFF; in general, are used with large vehicles in which it’s possible to stand up and walk.

Examples :

- EXP Alice got on the train in NY and didn’t get off.

- The driver got off the bus to stretch his legs.

6 ) WITHIN :

Means in the space of, inside of.

Examples : - We’ll be finished within an hour.

 - I’m going on leave within a week.


Means not having, with no.

Examples :  - Without money, what can you do ?

- They went boating without life preservers.


- Differ from means to be dissimilar. - Differ with means to disagree.

# Your car differs from mine.                   (dissimilar).

# Fred differs with me on this matter        (disagree).

- Different from means to be unlike, never use different that.

- Among is used to compare three or more items.

- Between is used to compare just two items.

- Despite and in spite of may be used interchangeably when followed by a noun.

# Despite his age, he won the race.

# In spite of his age, he won the race.