Conditional sentences are usually placed in clauses introduced by ‘’IF’’ which my come before or after the result, and have two parts: 

the if clause and the main clause.

If the if clause is first, use a comma before the main clause.

If the main clause is first, no  comma is used.

One type of if conditional deals with real conditions: something will probably occur or result in the present or future if certain condition happens.

Other if conditionals express unreal, or contrary–to-fact situations in the present and past.


CONDITIONAL TYPE I : True in the present or future ‘’Real Conditional’’ :


Conditional type « I » is called the real conditional because we can realize it in the near time or in the future.

We use it to express :


A) Universal truth :

        It expresses an evident fact which is always true and real. It’s composed of :


                        If + Present ¾¾¾>Present



                        - Water boils If you heat it.

                        - A plant dies If it doesn’t get water.


B) A habitual reaction :

        It expresses an action which is repeated or happened. It’s composed of :


                        If + Present ¾¾¾>Present



- If  I   get up   early ,  I   take   exercises.

- If  she   asks   him for anything ,  he   refuses.


C) Probabilities :

        Is expresses a doubtful fact or an unusure result . It’s composed of :


                        If + Present ¾¾¾>Future



- If you ask him , he will help you.

- I will buy a car , If I have money.


D) Other examples :


If + present tense ¾¾>future/present/imperative


Examples :

- If you study hard, you will certainly pass the tests.

- If they arrive late ,what will you do?

- If I get up at 0600 , I usually get to work on time.



A conditional sentence that contains a present tense in both if clause and the main clause expresses automatic or habitual results.

Examples :

-If the weather is nice, we are going to drive to the lake.

-We can't leave until 1500 if he finishes late.

-If you ever get lonely, call me.


If + present progressive ¾¾> future/modal/imperative


Examples :

-If you are looking for Bob, you can find him at the library.

-If Mary is leaving tonight, I have to take her.

-If you are selling your car, put an ad in the classified section.


If + present perfect ¾¾> future/modal/imperative


Examples :

-If you have already gone there, we will go somewhere else.

-If the kids have eaten, they may go out to play.

-If you haven't visited Disney Land, be sure you missed a great deal.


CONDITIONAL TYPE II: Untrue in the present/future ‘’Unreal Conditional’’:


It’s called the unreal conditional because we can’t realize it. Everything occurred in the past.

It’s composed of :


If+Simple Past ¾¾>Would/Could (modal in the past)+Simple form of the verb


Examples :

- If I had reservation , I would fly to Rome.

- I would kill that thief , If I had a gun.

-If I taught this class, I wouldn't give tests.

(In truth, I don't teach this class)

-If he were here right now, he wouldn't help us.

( In truth, he is not here right now.)

- I would accept their invitation if I were you.

( In truth, I am not you )

- I could get an ice cream, if I had a dollar.

( In truth, I don't have a dollar, so I can't.)



Were is used for both singular and plural subjects. Was ( with I, he, and she is sometimes used in very formal speech, but is not generally considered grammatically acceptable.


CONDITIONAL TYPE III : Untrue in the past ‘’Contrary - To – Fact’’:


- In contrary-to-fact statements expressing conditions with if and everything is against the reality These sentences express an action that would have happened ( but it didn't ) if some other action or state had or had not happened in the past

It’s composed of :


If + Past Perfect  ¾¾>Could / Would + Have + Past Participle


Examples :

- If you had told me the truth , I could have helped you.

- I would have visited you If you had telephoned.


- We would have won the game, if he had not broken his arm.

( We didn't win the game, he broke his arm. )

- If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you.

( In truth you didn't tell about the problem )

- If Tim had saved his money, he could have bought a new car.

( He didn't save his money so he didn't buy a new car.)



1 ) In  contrary - to - fact  statements  expressing  a  supposition.  These express  a  supposed condition in a separate sentences following suppose. Suppose introduces a condition with its consequences in the same sentence. 

Examples :

- Suppose you had won a million dollar, what would you have done with the money.

- Suppose she had married an army officer, would she have liked moving every year.

2 ) Omitting if.

With we, had ( past perfect ) and should ,sometimes if is omitted and the subject and verb are inverted. 

Examples :

-Were I you , I wouldn't do that(if I were you , I wouldn't do that).

-Had I known , I wouldn't have told you .(If I had known,……..).

-Should any one call , please take a message.(If any one should call,……).


3 ) Using "mixed time" in conditional sentence:

Frequently the time in the "If clause" and the time "result clause" are different: one clause may be in the present and the other in the past. notice that the past and the present times are mixed in the sentences as in the following examples. 

Examples :

- True: I didn't eat breakfast several hours ago , so I'm hungry now

- Conditional: If I had eaten  my breakfast several hours ago , I wouldn't be hungry now.

- True: He is not a good student , he didn't study for the test yesterday .

- Conditional: If he were a good student he would have studied for the test.

4 ) Implied conditions:

Frequently the "If clause" is implied not stated. Conditional verbs are still used in ‘’the result’’ 

Examples :

- I would have gone with you, but I had to study.(I would have gone with you If I hadn't had to study.

- I never would have succeeded without your help.(If you hadn't helped me ,I never would have succeeded.

- I would have visited you, but I didn't know that you were home .(I would have visited you If I had known you were home).

- She ran; otherwise, she would have missed her bus.(If she hadn't run, she would have missed her bus.)

5) To realize the conditional we can use besides ‘’If’’, Unless, Whish, Otherwise, or Whether :

Unless :   ( Negative If = If Not ). 

Examples :

- I will write a story If you give me a pen.

- I will not write unless you give me a pen.

Otherwise :   ( If this isn’t done ).

 Examples :

- You must drive carefully otherwise you may be killed.

- Do your homework, otherwise I will punish you.

Wish :   ( It’s often refers to the unreal or the contrary - To - fact conditional ). We wish for things we don’t have or done. 

Examples :

- She wishes she had a car.

- I wish I were a president of U.S.A.

Whether :   ( It has the same meaning of IF but whether can be followed by or not, and in this case the condition has no effect ). 

Examples :

- Whether we like it or not, we must take examinations. (our opinion has no value).


        Chouse the correct tense of the verbs in ( ) to complete the sentences :

        1) What will you do if you ( do ) pass.

        2) If she had been sure of traveling, she ( study ) English.

        3) If he left his room, she ( move ) to it.

        4) If you ( tell ) me about the problem, I would have helped you.

        5) I will go with you if I ( have ) money.

        6) If she ( be ) at home, I’m going to visit her.

        7) I wouldn’t give tests if I ( teach ) this class.

        8) She would help us if she ( be ) her.

        9) She wishes they ( not come ).

        10) I ( stay ) here unless you pay me.

11) Whether they accept it or not, I ( go ).