The Jewishness in the United States

The Jewishness in the United States
1.1.1 The Jews as a religious community
That is what the Jewishness? Is this a race or religion? Are Alternatively, Jews, a nationality or religion? According to anthropological analysis, Jews are not a "race." They are no longer a nationality, because there is a sense of belonging for all Jews to a nation State. Therefore, a more interesting question would be, the Jews were an ethnic community or religion? As a comparison, could ask the same question about Sikhs were India and Pakistan. In the ancient Levant, this question does not arise, because each ethnic group loved his own God and thus formed a particular religion.
The Jews who settled throughout the world differed to the other inhabitants of each region by their ethnicity, religion and language. Spain Germany and Arab countries, they talked about the dominant language but wrote with Hebrew characters. Until two hundred years ago there was only a form of Jewish religious orthodoxy, even if there were two major cultural trends, Sephardim (implanted Spain and Portugal Muslims countries) and the Ashkenazi (implanted in German - and Slav countries). Reformist tendencies, which gave rise to the current movements of reformers and conservatives, temples took shape in Germany toward the beginning of the 19th century. All tribes and ethnicities of the ancient Levant Jews are only kept the uniqueness of race and religion.

1.1.2. Jewish Immigration to the United States
How the first Jews arrived in the United States? During the Spanish Inquisition, many Jews fled to the Netherlands. When the Inquisition came to Netherlands, then under Spanish domination, some Jews left for England and its American colonies. The first number, 23 North American Jews indeed arrived in Nieuw Amsterdam, future New York, in 1654, via the city of Recife the Brazil. First reform Jews have established their first synagogue in the independent United States in 1842.
Between the years 1880 and 1924, anti-Semitism appears more markedly in the United States. This period saw the arrival of some three million Jewish immigrants fleeing oppression Russia and Central Europe. Concentrating in cities and poor neighbourhoods in New York, they speak a strange language, yiddish (a merger of German and Hebrew), have a very different way of life, and are considered inappropriate strangers, as the tide of Irish came during the 1840s. These new Jews are excluded hotels, schools, and societies and clubs reserved for the Anglo-Saxons white and protestants, although some Sephardim Jews are tolerated.
In 1924, a very conservative and nationalist, Congress afraid flows of immigrants from Eastern and southern Europe after the socio-economic problems in Europe, voted a law restricting immigration, especially Slavic and Jewish. It stipulates the preference for "Northern race" on "Slavic and Semitic races." It will not relaxed after the seizure of power by the nazis in Germany and quotas prevent tens of thousands of European Jews to seek refuge in the United States. In 1945, the Congress is reluctant to let "displaced persons" Jewish fear of communist infiltration. The situation improved after the war: quotas falling, laws are amended, and abolished discrimination.
In 1993, the world's Jewish population was estimated to 18 million people, including approximately 6.2 million in the United States, 4.3 million Israel, and nearly 2 million in the territory of the former USSR. Approximately 1.5 million Jews lived in the rest of Europe, including 700,000 in France. Close to 60 per cent of Jews in the world currently living in the United States or Israel, encourages links among the Jewish communities of the two countries. In the United States (1999 estimate), the Jewish population made up 2.2 percent of the u.s. population. State with the largest Jewish population is New York with Jewish 1.651.000, or 9.1 per cent of the population. Then there are the California with Jewish 967.000, 2.9 per cent of the overall population. There are seven States all who more than three percent of Jewish population: New York, New Jersey (5.7%), Massachusetts (4.4%), Florida (4.2%), Maryland (4.1%), Nevada (3.2%), Connecticut (3.2%), and the Colombia District with 4.9 percent.
1.1.3. The Jews in the Bush
Jews were involved in the governance of the United States and the construction of its civil society very heterogeneously. In the next section, we shall see how the Jews had a decisive role in the American labor movement. In the United States Government (s), the Jews participated at all levels belonging to all political currents. Before the American civil war, there were several MPs and Jewish Senators originating in States South of the North. With few exceptions, they followed the unionist trend or secessionist State they represented at the Congress. Rated South, Judah P. Benjamin Jew was Jefferson Davis as Minister of war and foreign Government. Beginning of the 20th century, the first American elected Socialist Member of the Congress was a Jewish immigrant from the Austria Victor Berger. Elected in 1910 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, he lost his re-election in 1912 and was then sentenced in 1918 for 20 years in prison for opposing (sedition) to the West of the United States alongside the allies in world war I. The Supreme Court overturned the verdict in 1921, and was re-elected in the Congress in 1922. Another Socialist, Meyer London, immigrant Russian Poland was elected to Congress in 1916 but does not oppose us participation in the war of 1914-1918.
The presence of the Jewish elect became a banality of today. Currently, there are 10 Jewish Senators on 100-27 Jewish deputies on 435 House. Bill Clinton appointed two judges to the Supreme Court, all two Jews. In the presidential campaign of the year 2000, the candidate loses to Vice-President of the Democratic Party, Jewish Senator Joe Liebermann of the State of Connecticut, has not generated significant debates of the American electorate. Indeed, its regular practice of the Jewish faith in summer advertising campaign and quite well received by a mostly secular American society.

1.1.4. The Jewishness to a tool policy
We have seen that the American Jewishness is a religious community who kept a strong identity and cohesion despite a global diaspora and migratory staging in the United States spread over 200 years. For 350 years of Jewish presence in the United States, Jews were able to participate at the highest levels of the American political system. Today, after shocks and genocide of the 20th century, Jews are located with a high concentration of population in the United States, but this is only a fortieth of the overall u.s. population. For stronger weigh that allow only people in a sometimes hostile environment, the Jews have the organizing. In the American system of governance, the choice to act as a socio-political lever is lobby. Before watching how Jews are organised in lobbies, we will explore how does the legislative process in American foreign policy and how the lobbies are organized.

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