The American legislative process

The American legislative process
1.2.1. The respective roles of the Executive and legislative
In the process of foreign policy of the United States, the Government and Congress have specific roles to play. Can be considered that the President, the Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense give major lines and lead foreign policy. Congress enacted laws give limits in which the Executive could act. The Congress also provides credits means to finance policy.
Traditionally, Congress is interferes to everyday driving foreign policy carried out by the White House and the Department of State. However, in the formulation of laws affecting appropriations to the various programs of foreign policy, Congress can easily impose an inter-ministerial policy Executive. In 1975, in cohabitation between a Republican Executive (President Ford) and a Democratic Congress, the Congress period spent Jackson-Vanik Amendment imposed Soviet policy regarding Jewish emigration to get us commercial privileges. Thus, the Department of State was obliged to accountability in Congress and the Department of commerce on the behavior of the Soviet Government with respect to barriers to the Jewish emigration. The Department of commerce, in turn, was a more or less hard policy on trade with the soviets. As a result, very many Jews have immigrated Israel and the United States.

1.2.2. The route of the Bill
A particularity of the American legislative process, is that the President and his Government cannot introduce bills to the breast of the Senate or the House. The Department concerned shall find "sponsors" in both to introduce a Bill. Often the Department and the staff of the legislature shall cooperate in the drafting of the project. Once introduced, the project is assigned to a parliamentary Committee in the Senate and the House. The President of the commission, always of the majority party of the House in question, reassigns the project to a Subcommittee. The Subcommittee has a staff of experts appointed by each party who studied the draft and responds to requests from members of the Subcommittee. Is in the Subcommittee where most of the writing is made, under the influence of lobbyists seeking to improve, enhance, amend or delete some paragraphs in the draft. The Chairman of a Committee can often stop the course of a project by refusing to put the project on the agenda or assign it to a Subcommittee.
If the times changed project is approved by the Subcommittee, it is then considered by the commission in a plenary session. In the sessions of the committees or subcommittees, legislators can call experts, citizens or employees to be heard. For the members of the Executive order to appear is mandatory. The lobbies are an extraordinary effort to plea before the commissions and normally all tendencies are heard because all legislators can ask witnesses. Corresponding committees in the Senate and the House compares the evolution of the texts and the timetable for legislative planning so that projects out of Committee in each room with roughly the same words roughly at the same time. If projects are identical (which may be the case if the respective initial sponsors were well coordinated since the beginning), the project will be passed to the White House for signing the Senate and the House voted on the texts. If there is no accurate texts voted by the Senate and the House, the respective committees meet in joint session to negotiate a compromise. Once this compromise is voted in every room, the project goes to the President.
Laws affecting credits Executive to finance policy are written and decided in two stages. As a first step, the Expert Committee proposes a project that allows a financial commitment of the u.s. Government. In a second step, specialized commission finding equilibria in each room (Appropriations Committee) budget proposes a project appropriate funds. The amount of the appropriations authorized and appropriate may change in the negotiations between legislators, between commissions between rooms, and between the Congress and the White House.

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