All You want to know about the U.N

1 - Origins:
 The term "United Nations" appears for the 1st time in the "UN Declaration" of January 1, 1942, in which representatives of 26 nations pledged to continue fighting together against the Axis powers.
 The UN Charter was drafted by the fifty states attending the UN Conference on International Organization, held in S. Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945, at the end of the 2nd GM.
 The Organization of the UN was officially born October 24, 1945, at which time the Charter was ratified by a majority of signatory countries.  This is the day the UN, celebrated every year.
 2 - Goals:
 The goals of the United Nations, enshrined in the Charter are:
 •         Maintaining peace and security.
 •         Develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equality, rights of peoples and their right to self-determination,
 •         Achieve international cooperation in solving peacefully the problems of an economic, social, cultural and humanitarian
 •         Promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms,
 •         Establish a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in these common ends.
 3 - Principles:
 The UN is founded on the principle of sovereign equality of all member nations:
 •         Members must fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed under the Charter;
 •         They must settle their disputes by peaceful means, without endangering international peace and security and justice;
 •         They must refrain from the threat or use of force against any other state and they are required to assist the Organization;
 •         The United Nations must ensure that non-members do not endanger peace and international security;
 •         The UN does not intervene in matters within the domestic jurisdiction of States.
 4 - Composition:
 Membership of the UN every peace-loving states which accept the obligations of the Charter.  The new members are admitted by decision of the General Assembly upon recommendation of the Security Council.  (191 members)
 Exclusion or expulsion of a member is possible, but no measures of this kind has ever been made.
 5 - Structures:
 The Charter established six principal organs:
     General Assembly;
     the General Secretariat;
     the Security Council;
     the Trusteeship Council;
     the Economic and Social Council;
     the International Court of Justice.
 The UN Secretary General is the highest official of the Organization.  It is in the eyes of the world community the very emblem of the UN
 6 - Role of the General Assembly:
 •         Main deliberative body, composed of representatives of Member States (1voix);
 •         Important decisions (peace, security int, membership, budget), made by a majority of 2 / 3;
 •         Decisions on other issues taken by simple majority;
 •         It meets in regular session each year, the 3rd Tuesday of September to mid-December;
 •         At the beginning of each regular session, a new President is elected.
 7 - 6 large committees that assist the AG in its work.
 •         A commission for economic and financial issues;
 •         A Commission for Social, Humanitarian and Cultural;
 •         A Committee on Administrative and Budgetary;
 •         A committee for legal affairs;
 •         A commission on disarmament and international security;
 •         A commission of special political and decolonization.
 8 - Presentation of the CS
 •         At the end of the charter, the SC primary function of maintaining peace and Sec int;
 •         It consists of 15 members.  5 permanent and 10 elected by the GA for 2 years;
 •         He is the only one who can make decisions that members must follow.  Other bodies make recommendations to governments;
 •         Decisions are made by an affirmative vote of 9 / 15, including the 5 permanent members.  The negative vote of a permanent member expressed by a veto.
 9 - The Economic and Social Council:
 He serves annually, comprises 54 members elected every three years.  It coordinates the economic and social activities of the UN and its specialized agencies (WHO, UNESCO, FAO, ILO).
 10 - The supervisory board:
       Oversee the administration of territories under the trusteeship system to promote the progress of its people and guide them gradually toward self-government or independence.  He is currently dormant since 15/12/1994 (Islands Palau became a member).
 11 - ICJ
       Located in The Hague, it is the judicial organ of the UN.  15 judges elected for nine years by the GA and SC, were elected as members of the court.  She is judging disputes submitted to it by States.  Its ruling is binding on them.
 12 - The secretariat:
       It coordinates the activities of other UN bodies and implements programs and policies of the United Nations.  It is chaired by the SG is appointed for 5 years by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the SC.  The SG must bring to the attention of any matter that threatens CS Peace and International Security.  He used his good offices to help resolve disputes.
       The nominees through informal groups composed on the basis of political, economic or geopolitical member states compete.  The election requires at least 9 votes, including the 5 permanent members.
 13 - Problems and Prospects:
 •    The finding of a crisis of image and credibility.

 •   The strategy for the return of UN:
 o  The humanitarian and reconstruction
 o  Legalization
 o  Financing, administration and jurisdiction
 •    A role that is not confined to Iraq:
 o  The operations of peacekeeping.
 o  A diplomatic forum irreplaceable.
 •    Reforms necessary but improbable:
 o  enlargement of the Security Council,
 o  Committee Staff of standby,
 o  restructure the institutions of the UN to act better.
 14 - UN Reform, Issues and Perspectives:
     Structural reform:
 •         Enlargement of the CS to alter its form of representation (Germany, Japan, Brazil, India).
 •         Revitalize its economic and social activities so as to boost the exchange of experiences, ideas, information and people.
 •         Reform of the financing + change in the distribution of contributions from each state.
     Towards a conceptual reform:
 •         Introduction of preventive diplomacy (sustainable development, prevention, culture of peace).
 •         Review the current methods and means for maintaining peace and strengthening cooperation with other organizations.
     Agendas for Peace (report SG.2000)
 Conduct a study on ways to strengthen the capacity of the organization in areas of preventive diplomacy, peacekeeping and peacemaking, and how to increase efficiency within the provisions of the Charter.
 It includes proposals to consolidate peace after conflict and restoring confidence between the parties and recommendations for the growing needs for the operations of peacekeeping.
 15 to 50 th anniversary of the UN reform bill (24 Oct 2005) ... A missed opportunity:
 Part 1 of the reform devoted to collective security including the adoption of a definition of terrorism.  The SG has sketched out a universal definition of terrorism: "any act intended to kill or injure civilians and noncombatants in order to intimidate a population, Govt, or Org.    But the right to use weapons at an occupation (in the name of freedom) or in an authoritarian political system (in the name of democracy), inhibit the adherence of States to this definition.    Furthermore, reform is also interested in the fight against weapons of mass destruction and nuclear proliferation.  It aims to create a UN commission of peacebuilding.
 Part 2 of the reform aims at the development, cooperation and solidarity between north and south to halve poverty by 2015 through:
    increased state aid estimated at 0.7% of GNP of rich countries;
     the debt relief;
     taxes on air tickets and stock transactions.
 Part 3 of the reform: the promotion of human rights, democracy and human rights through:  
     the adoption of the right of humanitarian intervention;
     the adoption of a new council for human rights;
     strengthening the High Commissioner for Human Rights.

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