The strategy of misinformation

After the agrarian and industrial eras, we enter today in the era of information. At the origin of this new era was the phone, then come .and especially 1980s computer networks from satellite. In the 1990s produced information freeways revolution: the Internet to serve both the civil domain military to inform or misinformation.
Part of the field psychological disinformation was used since long dates for political and military purposes.
And the evolution of the techniques of communication, media, sources and means infomation have all contributed to both misinformation public opinion as military organizations that they were able to manipulate, intentionally or not, providing incorrect information.
Military strategy, history of the war, geopolitics...

I - Strategic approach:
Subject rarely discussed in the mainstream media, misinformation is often associated with the world of shadows, a clandestine world secret document and espionage. It is important to understand the function fills the misinformation in the strategic field.
Disinformation is information that a person or a group of people are in their favour and neglect information who did not marry their thesis.
The main actors and sources are State for strategic reasons, political institutions, companies and the press.
Disinformation is essentially a strategy used to achieve a specific goal, to deceive an enemy or to influence the thoughts and opinions of people to understand certain beliefs and claim a lie as being truthful.
This is a more or less reflected attitude, which can be a form of advertising. It can be contained in a photographic illustration in an article in press, in an advertisement or issued by audio visual and computer means.
Essentially, misinformation is deliberate information distort the perception of reality to the target use. The information is not necessarily wrong, it can only be true if it serves to reinforce a desired at the expense of another table.
There are two important points in the theory of misinformation. Firstly, the target must be able to be disappointed. The leadership of the victim must accept and take all necessary measures once the misinformation is provided. In other words, the State of mind of leadership and the people shall be such that it would accept the misinformation as being legitimate, it is source of information or that it comes from the media.
Misinformation must be consistent with the preconception that target reality. In addition, channels of misinformation must be credible and well established as a front.
Secondly, the victim must be in a State of mind where misinformation confidence will be in addition to any evidence or opposing theory. Fundamentally the target was convinced of his invulnerability and confidence encouraged him to think that the enemy could show some kind of operation of disappointment.
II - strategic misinformation and media:
Press TV, radio, and newspapers can facilitate communication which is transmitted by the State, business or political institutions. Information and disinformation can be of different levels: national, regional or international.
Thus, messages are viewed in different ways and transcribed following the interest of the informant.
The media are considered as targets strategies of disinformation and at the same time populations misinformation sources.
Means of information, powerful amplifiers, are the most convenient for the purposes of this misinformation and thanks to their cumulative activity on the one hand and their differential activity on the other hand instrument.
Occurs the Soviet civilian nuclear reactor in Chernobyl accident in 1986. Misinformation was (radioactive cloud stopped wisely to cross the French border)A few days after this release was doubt.
It has beenannounced that the cloud from Chernobyl would be stopped by the mountains and it would not reach Europe. But traces from Chernobyl radioactivity were recovered after. This information fact feel need a easy access to clear and objective information
The notion of balance in reporting the news directors and journalists is of central importance in the debate in the media. Accurate picture of a subject may be biased that journalists often work under pressure to get a story as soon as possible. They are in competition with other information as well as with their colleagues journalists. Facts and interpretation errors may result from the desire of wanting to get out a release. Therefore a disinformation could easily slip between the lines.
There is a difference between news and truth. They are not necessarily synonymous. People expect what reporters say the truth, however, they are sometimes not enough facts to tell on the subject. An example might be the story of the war the Viet Nam. The instructions came from most of the time of the generals and military personnel. The facts were often only a portion of the truth and they represent a false representation of reality because of the sources.
The media are often victims of politics, where government institutions exert power and influence on the media. This type of activity is evidence that are politicians, and non-journalistic ethics of objectivity that orchestrate the news today.
And the media have been widely used in the undertaking of misinformation that preceded the start of the Gulf war and continued during the hostilities and even after the end of it. There are for example misinformation regarding the (super) canon Iraqi and use this theme for the preparation of international to accept the principle of war public opinion. In reality this super gun was super (hoax) there is a link between the frequency and intensity of contradictory and hegemonic relations between media and Governments.
A subject of debate the importance is growing concerns how media deal with surveys found in almost all news stories and journals. Some misinformation theorists argue that surveys are used to influence public opinion, whereas others argue that they are near the truth.
In principle, the public must be adequately informed, but occasionally presentations or new alter or bypass the reality according to the methods and goals of informants.
Disinformation is also used in the election to discredit candidate and minimize its value to the audience. In this case, a negative campaign is mounted against him by blatant lies to talk about and remember one or facts or serious misconduct committed by the candidate in the past (such as breach of indecent or against the interests of the nation).
Media bring specific and constant attention to currents exist in the audiences.
The purpose of the news media is to create stories that are well organized around the triad (conflict, problems, and outcome) and contain a start, medium and an end, or a bottom-up action increases until his movement point culminating, to arrive at the outcome of the intrigues. This is crucial to maintain an audience. Unfortunately, the news that interest are very exposed to the machinations of misinformation.
Nevertheless, among the deontological rules established by the journalists themselves to prevent misconduct committed, found the prohibition of propaganda and disinformation. There are also the notion of professional analogy where correspondents are professional and therefore targets in their stories.
III-the strategic military misinformation:
We are driven by the information age. Technological advances are changing the face of the war and how to prepare it.
But one must remember des theories of Sun Tzu on the indirect strategy: he said: (all war is based on misinformation.) Therefore, if possible, feign impotence. and in the countryside, feign inactivity. When you're nearby, give the impression that you are away, when you are away the impression you nearby. Offer your enemy a bait to lure; (feignez disorder and attack), is the grand strategy of disappointment
Disinformation is a psychological operations are planned and directed in times of peace as in time of war, opposing troops, hostile audiences, and to influence attitudes and behaviors affecting the achievement of political and military objectives.
More military action is also important, more need to seek to assist him by means including actions in psychological fields because of misinformation operations have specific goals: to weaken the will of the enemy in the demoralizing, win the support of the uncommitted and strengthen the sympathy of the allies.
More than for other types of action, disinformation operations require to be planned and coordinated at a higher level.
The presence of the media on the theatre of operations contributing to duplication of information aimed at different audiences.
Strategic misinformation is designed by a major State to deceive the enemy on time, place and nature of operations to the highest level. It is used for the active dissemination of false or misleading information interpreted by force to deflect the future intentions or put at a disadvantage.
Vladimir Volkoff, one of the main theorists of disinformation, develops several theories in disinformation: weapon of war. He argues that misinformation comes in several forms and represents a major tactics used by the secret services around the world. These forms include black propaganda, white propaganda, tactical intoxication and influence.
Disinformation is designed by a State to misinform sources of intelligence of his opponent to give them an erroneous perception of reality. This is why that captured or sent information must be examined carefully and crosscut several sources.
To the machinations of disinformation, operational communication is broadcast to ensure command membership, support or at least the understanding by all public motives, purposes of flows and demonstrate their legitimacy.
Special attention must be lent to anticipate and minimize any adverse impacts resulting from actions, messages on public non-targeted for psychological operations including combined and joint force soldiers.

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