New technologies of information and communication as a strategic factor of development.

New technologies of information and communication are all transmissions of data in digital form l majority of economists today agree on the fact that they have become a vector becoming increasingly important for economic growth-related technologies. These include a series of technical tools and services facilitating the messaging network by the alliance of computing and telecommunications. Is not limited to the Internet and electronic commerce, they include:

§ messaging,

§ the intranet

§ videoconferencing,

§ call centres

§ the exchange of data interchange (EDI)

§ the working together (groupware)

§ the flow of documents in electronic format

II-features of the new ICTs
Some of the features of the new ICTs explain that they can be considered as particularly powerful instrument integration and economic progress, and appear promising for LDCs.
Firstly, ICT are distinguished by their ability to reduce distances. The physical disconnection they allow between producers and consumers for example, facilitates activities subcontracting, and multiplies the areas in which exchanges are possible. Dematerialisation of ICT-based systems can also be an asset in economies often deficient traditional infrastructure. In addition, by facilitating access to knowledge and information, they contribute to promote progress. Their role is particularly relevant in certain LDCs where the information is rarely produced locally and not easily accessible.
ICTs are also supposed to enable to accelerate the process of development, to the extent where technologies are often less expensive to acquire and the opportunities they offer particularly many and well adapted.
Finally, by their versatility, they can help to increase productivity in productive sectors, but also, for example, promote openness and transparency in privacy policy.
III - NICT, INSTRUMENTS of human development and SOCIAL
Broader poverty remains the main problem of LDCs. It is reflected not only by the weakness of the financial resources, but also a difficult access to education, care, employment, services, infrastructure, etc. Although it is difficult to assess the effects, ICTs have the ability to improve the quality of life of the poor.
Education :ICTs can accelerate the diffusion of knowledge and technological know-how (at a lower cost), which is one of the essential foundations of a dynamic development. For example, the Virtual University Institute of Monterrey, technology at Mexico - a consortium of institutions consisting of 13 foreign universities - allows to near 10,000 students living in other countries of Latin America, to prepare a degree, and the Mexico and 35,000 other non-awarding training. Similarly, the African Virtual University of Nairobi, which is largely funded by the World Bank, broadcasts satellite courses in 15 African countries, with the aim of enrolment in higher education to improve the quality of commercial, scientific and technical training on the continent, and to better accommodate the needs (World Bank 1999). Students can communicate with teachers by telephone, fax or e-mail.
Health :Domain health particularly well lends itself to a successful use of ICTs. International Union of telecommunications, for example, launched a pilot project in Senegal in the area of medicine, TV which aims to connect hospitals in Dakar with hospital located in the St. Louis region. Bolivia, Sami Santa Cruz hospital form students in medicine, the use of the Internet; Once established in remote areas, it is possible to communicate with specialists for delicate diagnosis through.
Market information :ICTs can facilitate the dissemination of information in a variety of areas, particularly in the functioning of markets, providing, both producers and consumers information about the State of supply and demand. Are many examples where these technologies have helped to make available to producers information on prices of certain foodstuffs, allowing them to market their production in better conditions or to improve the management of agricultural stocks. Better dissemination of information also allows to render more efficient agricultural exploitation techniques, and therefore yields. In addition, ICTs allow delete certain intermediaries, thereby increasing margins of producers.
Governance: The last area in which the use of ICT can help to improve the lives of the poor is governance. ICTs can indeed contribute to improve the process of democratization in facilitating the opening of the democratic debate and the circulation of ideas.
ICTs can also improve the effectiveness of government action and make the administration more efficient and more transparent. Computer centralize vital data or electronic archiving of various administrative data are examples.
IV-ICT, growth factors
ICTs constitute both a branch of industrial activity and among the most important production factor (or at least whose importance is increasing) for other sectors of activity.
The ICTs and productivity :ICTs can be regarded as belonging to the category of "generic" technology, which means they are supposed to help increase the efficiency of the production through various positive externalities in multiple areas of application.
The experience of the industrialized countries however led to caution: while expected to see a surge in productivity as a result of the dissemination of ICTs, the "productivity paradox" observed in industrialized countries shows that the expectations were exaggerated.
Studies on the most recent period however suggest the emergence of positive effects. It seems that there is a considerable gap in time between introduction of new technologies and increased productivity. also should we not expect dramatically faster results in LDCs. In addition, various empirical studies show that productivity gains appear particularly in the producer of it, while the existence of positive externalities to the rest of the economy remains to prove.
Finally, it should be noted that, in the American experience, growth has been possible only with a consequent change in the composition of qualifications of the workforce, structure organization of business and management practices. Therefore, positive effects related to the use of ICTs are necessarily accompanied by certain costs, probably not negligible. For these reasons, should remain cautious about the influence on a large scale of ICT on productivity in LDCs.
ICTs and fragmentation of production: ICTs are often identified as one of the springs of globalization and the intensification of exchanges. "In the context of globalization, there is indeed to intensive growth in trade, as opposed to a characteristic extensive growth of the movement of internationalization of the late nineteenth" century. Global production networks were modified in depth by multiple factors, and this movement was amplified by ICTs, in particular via the Internet. Division of labor more in finer observed today's globalization is a result of the increasing fragmentation of the production process. Services (telecommunications, in particular) play a key role in this process of fragmentation, insofar as they allow to link the different blocks production among themselves.
Des NTIC, dynamic business :Inas branch of industrial activity, ICT can also contribute contribute significantly to growth, insofar as it is a very dynamic sector and which may in particular to take advantage of an increase in exports of certain products related to ICTs. In addition, this sector is likely to be causing ripple effects on the rest of the economy.
Many countries are already able to support their dynamic development on these areas of activity. Taiwan is thus the third world producer of products incorporating ICTs (semiconductors, computers, computers assembled, products for telecommunications, etc. components) after the United States Japan; in 1999, exports accounted for approximately 28.4% of total exports to Taiwan. Similarly, the Korea South is the third producer of microchips in the world (14% of total exports in 1999). ICTs have largely been exploited in this case to improve the functioning of the port activities, administration, governance.
ICT and capital flows :ICTs can also encourage the accumulation of capital, in the form of foreign direct investment (FDI) but also workflow portfolio. The existence of a good ICT infrastructure is a criterion for potential investors. ICT to increase the competitiveness of an economy by contributing to the improvement of the quality of production and allowing suppliers to rub to international competition (European Union). On the other hand, the prospects for development of ICTs in LDCs attract large multinational enterprises in the sector who are wishing to penetrate new markets. Finally, the privatization of public telecommunications companies has all chances to increase FDI. Many countries including the party that they could learn from it and who have implemented infrastructure development policies.
The ICT risks
It is obvious that new information and communication technologies brought undeniable advantages and are carriers, for L'Avenir, invaluable potential. ICTs allow easier and faster access to information and better communication, whether in everyday life (reading log line, consultation schedules, bookings, price, comparisons etc.), in the world of work (access to databases, development of networks, etc.), in education (documentary research, educational tools, etc.) or in dealing with the administration (how-to, transactions). At a broader level, ICTs contribute decisively to economic growth, either through investment, open markets and productivity gains engendered. The policy should also take advantage of ICT: the dissemination of information, the opening of spaces for dialogue and the facilitation of the vote (e-voting) clearly widen the Democratic field. Many other examples could still be cited to illustrate the benefits brought by the technologies of information and communication for our society.

Nevertheless, developments of new communication and information tools can also be accompanied by effects pernicious, detrimental to social cohesion and a healthy economy. Among the perverse effects of ICTs, there are:

§ Existing inequalities seem to be strengthened in the company information, so that critical components of the population are excluded from the changes.

§ The Internet also poses problems for the protection of personal data. Such protection is critical for e-commerce and e-government, because without a protection level minimum, on-line services find users and public projects such as e-voting and digital identity will remain strongly criticized.

§ Computer security is a real sword of Damocles weighs on the company information: computer dependence of major infrastructures and swathes of the economy are holes open for acts of malevolence, or even terrorist acts or warriors.

§ Political system is not spared by the perverse effects of the information society. All information found their place on the Internet regardless of their quality. Therefore can speculate on what basis will be the formation of opinion. Furthermore, the ability of users to form communities of interest or filter information according to their interests or views can lead to fragmentation and radicalization views ("cyber-balkanization").

§ By pushing the reasoning at the extreme, can even fear as intermediary organizations (political parties, NGOs, etc.), the traditional role is the representation of interests and opinions, are doomed to disappear.

VII - COMMENT SE PREMUNIR against these risks

It is not only the State to act, but to all economic and social actors. We think for example the establishment of standards and quality criteria specific to promote a safe and respectful of the private sphere ICT use. Or curriculum aimed at transmitting skills on how to deal with the multitude of information available on the net and to assess the quality set-up. Another example concerns the continuing education of adults, whether they are teachers, frames, or simple employees. Here, the State could foster such training: he offers training or certification training.

See beyond Internet:A present, discussions around ICT are mainly reference to Internet. Statistics are interested in the connections to the network of networks, e-mail and web sites. Mobile communication is also passed under the microscope. Propose a forward-looking policy requires however look beyond what could almost be described as "traditional" technologies. Internet and telephony mobile are only a first not towards an evolution that will see the convergence of computer applications. The miniaturization of computer components, increased power and transmission technologies (GPRS, UMTS, Bluetooth, Wireless LAN, etc) announce new shocks, which may affect deeply our society and economy. This will be only computers and phones will be networked, but all machines, or even human beings humans. ICT will no longer support a screen and a keyboard, but sensors, receivers. ICT will be more operated by individuals, but will act independently. In the laboratory, the work focuses on wearable computing, intelligent home, smart Office. Longer term, we bet on body computing.

These developments will open new markets and transform many sectors (including the health sector). But they also affect our ways of working, to share, communicate, and as such deserve consideration of any discussion, and debate on new information and communication technologies.

Similar tags: encyclopedia, Military Strategy, History (Story) of the War, Geopolitics, Geostrategy, Geopolitical blog, geopolitical card(map), mapping(cartography), conference, politics(Knol policy), conflicts war, course(price, courses) of geopolitics, sketch world, geopolitical file, employment(use) strategic, stakes of strategy, forum geopolitics, knoll geography, geography Africa, geopolitics America, Asia, china(antique hunting), geopolitics Israel, definition of geopolitics of the chaos, the contemporary, economic world, and geostrategy, United States, Europe, France, international, war and conflict, geopolitical history(story), Iran nuclear, middle east, global issue, go green, geopolitical institute, magazine geostrategic, oil world, magazine(review) of strategy, geopolitical site