Geopolitics of the India

Political and social situation of the largest democracy in the world, 2007 The India is a multicultural country where different religions, languages and habits rub in a territory of the most populous. True democracy, strong of a history as old as humanity itself, this state of South Asia impressed. It is therefore essential to understand the internal tensions, tumultuous or harmonious, relations with countries that surround it and those that it maintains specific relations, and economic issues for a real global analysis of the territorial peculiarities and policies of this country, even in the imagination of many, seemingly mythical. Territorial particularities of primary importance Introduction The India is facing many conflicts within some of its most dynamic States. Believed in Kashmir which alone is a complex whopping or that you think the Northeast Zone or the Punjab the India gives printing implode, but when is it really? This huge democracy came to resolve some conflicts in connection with separatist movements in the States of Nagaland and Punjab. [BALENCIE, Jean-Marc and Arnaud de la Grange] It goes without saying however with a dazzling cultural plurality and a religious mixture which can level at times close to extremism. Andhra Pradesh Undoubtedly dominated by agriculture that State is faced with mainly Communist revolutionary groups. The People's War Group (PWG), Maoist guerrillas, initiated talks with local officials. The New Delhi Government also proved very repressive towards the Nepalese who came to settle in India suspected of helping the Maoist Communist Center (MCC), an organization that create a Communist corridor of the Andhra Pradesh at the Nepal. It is known that this monarchy is currently faced with an escalation of the insurgency Maoist especially in poor countries which are neither more nor less organized as self-directed States. Gujarat Economically this State is one of the most prosperous of the India, however it is not similarly politically. Following the fire of a train in the town of Godhra, on 27 February 2002, a strong inter-religious tension has created a great political crisis in this State. This incident has killed 59 Hindus, all of the pilgrims of provenance of Ayodhya. You should know that this old city is regarded as the place of birth of the deity Rama, seventh incarnation of Vishnu, protector God of the world. It was the result of violent riots and a direct attack against the Muslim community of Gujarat. These riots have cost the life to nearly 2,000 people, mainly all Muslim. The massacre also created nearly 150,000 homeless. This is not the first time that Gujarat was the host of such situations. In 1992, following the destruction of a mosque, always in the city of Ayodhya, there were almost 2,000 deaths in similar clashes. Is that the India has around 140 M of Muslims in its borders. (Encyclopedia Microsoft Encarta, "India"]) The Islamist also had influences in Gujarat, it should be noted the prohibition of alcoholic beverages. To understand the situation political State, you should know that it is the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) who directs the State since 2001. The BJP is a radical and nationalist Hindu party. Often accused of maintaining the tensions between Muslims and Hindus, or in some cases to be xenophobic or racist, is suspected of maintaining close relations with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), extremist nationalist organisation Hindu. Indeed, in recent years Muslim terrorist groups is there are formed with as only to avenge the Muslim victims of previous violence. For 13 years now, Bajrang Dal attacks Christian missionaries primarily in that State but also in Rajasthan and Orissa. Churches were burned and a missionary was bright brulé. In addition to this group very over 1.25 m members, are also the Gujarat Muslim Revenge Force (GMRF) and the Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI), Islamist group radical also active in Uttar Pradesh. Interestingly cultural, Jainism is a religion that exists almost only within the borders of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Around 4 M of people practise this religion, but his wealth and authority, this religion has a huge influence on the world cultural and religious in this country, which should be the recall, more than 1 billion people. Briefly, this State is one of the most industrialized, with a notably based economy on agriculture, but on the mechanical, textile and mining mainly. The growth rate of the gross national product (GNP) increased by 8% in the last fiscal year [PERRET, Quentin], a GDP which represents 14% of the total of the India [ROUSTEL, Damien] for a population representing only about 5%. Jammu and Kashmir History Kashmir remained a monarchy completely independent when the India was under British rule, then of the independence of the India, the Maharajah of Kashmir constantly drove the decision to join either Pakistan or the India and Pakistan then invaded the land. The India fit well and one of the worst contemporary conflicts was born, we discussed a little later. It is that Hindu Kashmir refused to join Pakistan and the predominantly Muslim population rebelled against it. The Maharajah to therefore appealed to the Indian army. Separations With a predominantly Muslim population, the India and Pakistan claim the full administration of Jammu and Kashmir and which are adjacent and areas which were once a great nation. Currently, about half of the territory of Kashmir is administered by the India, a huge part of the other half is under the control of Pakistan, the called Azad Kashmir, literally the free Kashmir, and China administers to a small part of this State, the Aksay-Chin. These are the United Nations, which imposed a ceasefire and the Division of the territory as it is known in 1949. Tensions Kashmir is source of tensions between the countries that the compete, as there is violence within the separatist movements in the disputed borders. In August 1965 the Pakistani and separatist Muslims in Jammu and Kashmir attack ignites the indo-Pakistani conflict. In 1999, Pakistani guerrilla resumes. That you think in Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) which the combativeness is falling or to the movement of the Mujahideen, the Hizbul Mujahidin (HuM) claiming the connecting of Jammu and Kashmir in Pakistan, violent actors are many This State is complex so that for example, following a survey, 92% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir do not accept the current distribution of Kashmir on ethnic and religious grounds. In addition, the issue of Kashmir takes many conflicts between the India and Pakistan, just to think of the first indo-Pakistan war triggered in 1947 and which caused nearly 500,000 people dead. [Encyclopedia Microsoft Encarta, "Indo-Pakistani, conflict"] In May 1998, Kashmir has been at the centre of tensions created by the nuclear tests on the part of the India, tests which Pakistan has quickly to respond. The war between the India and Pakistan was to primarily control of Jammu and Kashmir, today the 20th most populous state of the India. Punjab South of the boundaries of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, surrounded also by Uttar Pradesh, the Punjab (or Punjab) is in a location that can say precarious. This is one of the few, there are five total, not to have a Hindu majority. Sikhs are in fact more than 65% of the population. Following the creation of that State at the end of the year 1956, Sikhs demanded the punjabi language is exclusive in the new State. It was already a foretaste of the separatist movement which was then quickly degenerate. Quickly, followed the creation of the dominant Hindu Haryana State. Called for the creation of a land-des-pure, the Khalistan the sikh separatist movement took a large scale. As early as 1970, the conflict over the surrender of rights degenerated into a bloody civil war. Around 100,000 people were arrested and over 35,000 were killed. The Party of the Akali Dal (SAD) Shomani obtained not responses to its economic demands to the central Government, it instead encourage fundamentalist Sikhs. In 1984, after a raid against the Sikhs that tensions were at their height, more than 4,000 people were killed in this operation. On 3 June of the same year the Indian Government imposed a curfew in the population of this State, this day is also the anniversary of the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev. Although on 29 April 1986 the Kalisthan was proclaimed independent by a sikh group, that is not the case with the views of all. The sikh cause has also been tainted by the bombing of the Air India flight in 1985. This attack was orchestrated by the Sikh diaspora, in this case it refers to the Babbar Khalsa International (BKI) and made more than 300 dead. Tamil Nadu This state of which the coast overlooking the Gulf of Mannar and the Bengal lies in the extreme south of the India, separated from Sri Lanka by the Palk Strait. Therein, as in Pondicherry State a large concentration of Tamils. There is in this State a separatist group more or less assets, but what is the most memorable is that due to its proximity to the Sri Lanka Tamil Nadu, literally land of Tamils, welcomed and welcomes in its borders, the members of the armed group Sri Lankan of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) well that officially State only supports more group following an Indo-Sri Lanka peace accord. Following the unrest triggered by the terrorist separatist group former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, son of the famous Indira Gandhi was assassinated. Economically, the region is one of the most industrialized of the India, its industries produce cotton, leather and textile while integrating mechanics and transportation industry. Agriculture is based on the production of sugar cane and bananas. Uttar Pradesh This state of the northeast of the India is no doubt one of the most important of this great country. With a population around the 170 M of inhabitants, Uttar Pradesh is the State with the most population in India. Led since 2003 by the Samajwadi Party, an Indian Socialist Party, it remains that this great State is politically very sensitive. Although the party mainly axis its policy to help the most bases castes of the population and that it takes into account the interests of Muslims social improvements are still many including has with regard to the education system. Uttar Pradesh produces, for example, 47% of national exports of potatoes and 45% of national exports of sugar cane. Despite this its economic weight should soon be displaced by flowering economies of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu States, note the half population. Northeast area Assam Some of the Northeastern States are faced with serious political tensions. Several groups claim the independence of their State or claim greater autonomy. Assam was divided between the India and Pakistan during the independence of both countries in 1947. We are living in this region of Marxist insurgencies, nationalists and even Christian fundamentalists early 1950s. It noted, however, an instability in the State since the 1960s. Several groups of people demanded greater independence. The two military groups in importance the ULFA (United Liberation Front of Asom, literally translated by ULFA United Front) and the NDFB (National Democratic Front of Bodoland literally translated by the National Democratic Front of the Earth-Bodo) led offensive operations for the liberation of Assam. This resulted in the creation of five independent States, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura Meghalayale. Today New Delhi prefers to give a group a Regional Council both to risk the complete dismantling of the State said. Manipur Being since 1949 as an associated territory is only in 1972 that Manipur received the status of the India. Its economy mainly based on forestry and agriculture ensures the survival of some 70% of the inhabitants of this region of the India-2.39 M. Despite this small population which is equivalent to almost one quarter of that of Mumbai alone, found near a quarantine of several armed separatist groups. With a corrupt political system and a design of a divergent multi-party system that spread by the central Government, Manipur is in an economic situation and policy among the more precarious. Nagaland This small .tat at the frontiers of the North-East of the India is the host of ethnic conflicts that come to affect the quality of life of its inhabitants. Literally, since 1993 these conflicts escalated into a civil war. As soon as the arrival of the British, the Nagas were small and converted, some of their character the most typical, banned. It is fair to say that today ' hui that there is a very large home of Catholic despite the some 1.3 million of inhabitants. In 1964, it was decreed that Nagaland would be an autonomous, state that since 1957 was still under the authority of the Government of Mumbai. However, this special status did not stopped separatist movements, which blew two bombs, one in Assam and the other in Nagaland, which caused the loss of 54 persons while 100 were injured. Despite this conflict is to be resolved, the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) ceased fire. Tripura The formation of this State is a direct result of the dismantling of Assam. More than half of economic activities are based on agriculture which now modernized. Following the assumption of the independence of Bangladesh, the State became a refuge for many Bengali. As Manipur millions of Bengali Muslims have settled in these States, many so that Aboriginal peoples of these lands are now a few times in a minority. Relations with the neighborhood and the rest of the world The India-Pakistan relations Presentation Specifically with the question of the distribution of Kashmir the relations between these two countries, as mentioned above, are very strained. While the Azad Kashmir is led by a military dictatorship, Jammu and Kashmir is in a more precarious situation. Two military powers both the nuclear faceoff. the India is a strong army over 1.3 M of men. Bangladesh also he source of conflict between the two countries, cannot find more fragile relations. First and second indo-Pakistan war (1947-1948 and 1965) Around the years 1955, Pakistan it is aligned the United States while the India is is rather closer to the power that was the USSR at the time, a strategic choice which would only worsen relations on the eve of the cold war. Indo-Pakistan war also has the question of the distribution of Kashmir as the origin. In 1963 when a sacred relic, the Moe-e-Moqdas, was stolen from the Grand Mosque Srinagar's Hazaratbal is note of high unrest in the region of Kashmir. Pakistan sent its army in this territory, then, it crossed numerous boundaries of the India, especially in Gujarat. It is then only, the reactions of the local populations and the inaction of New Delhi that Pakistan Army attempted to control the entirety of Kashmir. Therefore, the second indo-Pakistan war began. In September 1965, the Pakistani army launched a massive offensive in Kashmir and largely invaded Indian territory. Seeing that he could not win this war alone, Pakistan turned to China aid, aid which could create international tensions. In September of the same year, the UN Security Council declared a ceasefire, ceasefire was respected by both countries. Third indo-Pakistan war (1947-1948) This third war between these two neighbouring countries quickly degenerated into a civil war. Unlike the previous two, this war is triggered following the secession of Bangladesh. Following the Suppression of Pakistan against separatists during the war of liberation of Bangladesh, the civil war caused between 500,000 and 3 million deaths and, before even the India bothering the conflict so not looking that Pakistan. What is know is that Bangladesh is a former State of Pakistan is appointing then East Pakistan, which was the second part of the country, the first being the western Pakistan. This internal conflict caused immigration nearly 10 M people in India, these seeking refuge mainly in the adjoining State of West Bengal. The India organizes in vain several talks to arrange the return of these refugees. During this time the Indians give more support to the bengali resistance ranging even to provide weapons and training of Mukti Bahini liberation force. The Indian army invaded the country and made sound defeat for Pakistan army. Bangladesh becomes immediately independent and was immediately recognized by the India. The situation today In 2003, the India accuses neighboring counterpart of a war by intervening terrorism, in April have noticed even a climate approaching dangerously close to that of the first indo-Pakistani wars. But representatives of the two countries were very favourable to the opening of the talks. In 2004, the Indian Prime Minister was even declared that he "did not conflict between the India and Pakistan." Following the recent elections to the BJP has lost the majority of seats, the smooth running of the then ongoing negotiations has been altered. Remembered that it was Sonia Gandhi who had won the election and gave his position, leaving it instead to Manmohan Singh, after a huge scandal on its Italian origins. The India-Bangladesh relations Even though Bangladesh gained its independence largely through the intervention of the India there still conflicts between these two countries. In 1996, an agreement was signed ending the conflict which lasted for more than 20 years on the apportionment of the waters of the River sacred is the Ganges. More recently, in 2001, following the construction of a road by the India a territory disputed by the two countries, the tone mounted in diplomatic relations. As mentioned previously, there was a large migration of population in the current Bangladesh during the last war between the India and Pakistan. Today at the borders of these two countries populations whose nationality is disputed are pushed one side and on the other the respective borders. The India-Sri Lanka relations Several members of the Bharatiya Janata Party from Tamil Nadu and therefore sympathized with the cause of the Tamil Tigers. Indeed, the current leader of this State, Muthuvel Karunanidhi is proposing nothing less than the separation of areas of Tamil ethnicity and Cinghalaise of Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, when war is again triggered in 2000, the India gave Sri Lanka a loan which is approximately 100 M of $, no less. Is that the India fears a new wave of refugees and fears giving military aid to this neighbouring country, a policy that the largest democracy in the world more advocates now more than two decades. New Delhi clearly favours a political and peaceful solution of the conflict in the distribution of land prevailing in Sri Lanka. The United States and the India Presentation The India attracts by its militarily strategic position by its economy which is that grow for more than ten years now. It is a flower market, Earth d "home of certain groups labelled as terrorists by the United States. The India familiar with the art of politics, United States them, became master. Two superpowers who want to work together despite differences that arise from this approximation. Progressive incursion The United States economies of South Asia came close in courting countries surrounding of the India, for example the Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and even China who fear to be eaten by the size of the India. This charming operation has been initiated for 20 years now. Today all the documents produced by the United States are commitment in this area of the world and since the events of September 2001 now, this commitment has taken a slightly different turn. During the recent visit of us President George w. Bush in South Asia, the two representatives came to bilateral agreement on peaceful uses of nuclear energy. After the attack the World Trade Center After the terrorist attacks that shook the United States, the India made a statement which launched his country in the fight against terrorism, support that the United States were quick to deny. Indeed, there are several attacks in Kashmir that were not reprimanded. However, this has not had significant impact on economic relations between the two countries. The United States is the main partner of the India for it relates to imports and exports. Indeed, this partner country receives 18% of exports and is responsible for 6.30% of imports of the [GOVERNMENT OF INDI, MINISTERY OF trade & INDUSTRY] India. The India in the world The India is relatively active around the world both economically than politically. Today land of hosts of large multinational companies from implanting on the outskirts of major urban centres because of labor, abundant and not expensive, the India has all the potential to woo foreign investors. Per capita GDP is now the $500 [encyclopedic World Atlas] ranking in 12th place at the global level. In 1995, the India ratifies the trade agreements of the General Agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT) (now the world trade (WTO)). Member of the Commonwealth as a former State under the British influence, a member of the G15, the India is well represented at the international level. The Kyoto agreement on greenhouse gases, it is said, has not been ratified by the two economic powers are the United States and the Australia. Similarly, the India, China, and the Korea of the South were not part of the signatories to Kyoto despite the fact that there are still often regarded as developing countries. With the Japan they created the so-called Asia-Pacific Partnership on clean development and climate. This it wanted a protocol for gas reduction higher than Kyoto greenhouse. It is by its military force that the India is necessary. Ballistic missiles, nuclear weapons, the India takes its place on the major forums and tents of reconciliations with the great powers. Recently what Tokyo and Beijing, two economic powers of Asia, who was charmed by Mumbai. The main issues of the country Caste and society cohesion History The caste system has appeared some 1500 years before Jesus Christ. Its origin comes from the tribe of the Aryans in the North of the India. In the beginning this system had only three castes, the brâhmanes, the kshatriyas and the vaisyasm. A fourth caste, the lowest of any, shudra, was created for Aboriginal peoples defeated. The system of the castes to su to adapt and evolve over the centuries. Elsewhere the word used today to refer to this system of ranking is derived from Portuguese casta, the Indians using their own words. Today, we find various sub caste complementing the varna, these first castes which have been listed above. It calls the jati and there are almost an infinite amount more than 2,000 blow on, as each region has its own jati. They are now the names of the families which indicate the caste to which they belong and the jati system regard even non-Hindus so its influence is great. The untouchables The untouchables or dalits are people that are not classified under one of the four varna. It is estimated that India more than 25% of the population are untouchables. They are among the poorest and live in wretched conditions. Often victims of violence and discrimination, non-caste are literally weighed down by the rest of the population. Every day, on average, two untouchables are killed and raped three women out-caste. Prior to the independence of the India in 1947, the untouchables were prohibited in schools. Today there are more as well as parties who defend the rights of these persons. On the 430 M of people living below the poverty line (defined by the World Bank poverty threshold is when a person lives on less than $ 1 per day), a majority of them are literally despised. In the constitution the untouchables are listed to meet certain quotas that their are reserved (in the public squares, schools, etc.). It is easily possible to found that even at the time where religions crumble around the world, the caste they are well rooted in morals more than 3,500 years ago. The cohesion of society There is not a player in cohesion stronger than Hinduism. It contribute without a doubt to the feeling that we Indians belong to a similar world. Even religious minorities are directly influenced by the religion practised by 83% of the population. [Encyclopedic world atlas] The family the importance in morals also explains the cohesion of society. Even if the family is based on a model patriarchal on the majority of the territory there are relics that a matriarchal system in the Kerala, what should we say, is very rare. Particularly for bases-caste or out-caste living in poverty, families are offices of symbols that represent security. Women, poor goddesses Women just have an importance in the family, it is the image of the dedication, notion that hides its roots the concept of sacrifice. This is the way for women in the collective imagination, Goddess status. This status also gives a right to order status to men, which was so that today ' today the India is one of the few areas where women have so much power. Moreover, a Bill was file which requires a minimum of 33% of women among leaders. But despite this women are most affects men and more abused. The dowry system, still very current in India, also discriminates women, already often much poorer than the man. Water, a capital issue Presentation Water is of vital importance throughout the world. With more than 1 billion people, of which about 70% live of agriculture, water becomes an issue political and commercial first order in South Asia. It is that the countries of this continent as is no shortage of water, it is just poorly distributed. The monsoon brings its lot of rain and it makes more arable land suitable for farming. The India has the 7th largest water basin with a total of 1,550 km3. The India dam was synonymous with development of agriculture and industry. When we know that 28% of the GDP is due to agriculture, we understand the importance of the issue of the them. When the construction of large dams on the other hand cause problem because large populations must be moved, the figures ranging between 30 and 50 M of people. [World wars and contemporary conflicts, September 1999] Relations with neighbouring countries Water to have been the cause of various tensions between Pakistan and the India and Bangladesh and the India. Although the subject could be dealt with elsewhere, a quick topo will be done here. Are Pakistan has built some disputed dams, including one in Azad Kashmir. When in Bangladesh, the well-known causes of conflict related to water are also dams just disrupt the current flow of water. We have just to think of the Farakka dam (1974) just complicate relations between the two countries, because it directly involves the control of the waters of the Ganges River, this important river irrigator, this sacred river. The Nepal contains an incredible amount of what is now called Blue Gold, water. This Kingdom at a hydroelectric potential of 83,000 MW [world wars and contemporary conflicts, September 1999]. By comparison, the potential from Quebec is currently about 33 000 MW. [Government of CANADA "events economic key - 1962 Hydro-Québec"] In addition, of many streams of the Nepal flow into the Ganges. Of course, the India has a military, political and economic control of the Nepal stream, it seeks also to impose a code of conduct for the management of rivers that run through the two countries. The Government of New Delhi in fact tried to reserve these rivers in the States of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Bhutan, this tiny country of just more than 2 M inhabitants is also in the sights of the India. With 20,000 MW potential, it is normal that Bangladesh also covets the rivers in that country. Indeed to approach Thimphu, the India has engaged a hydroelectric dam at Chukkha in the southwest of the country. In addition, Bhutan was awarded a loan at preferential rates, surprising when we know that the India is a part of the electricity produced. References médiagraphiques Monograph BALENCIE, Jean-Marc and Arnaud de la Grange, new worlds rebels: conflicts, terrorism and challenges, Paris, Michalon, 2004 Edition, 508 p. CHAUTARD, Sophie, wars and conflicts of the twentieth century, Paris, Éditions Librio, 2004, 96 p. GUILLARD, Olivier, the strategy of the India for the twenty-first century, Paris, Economica: Institute of comparative strategy, practical school of higher studies, 2000, 155 p.. 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