Failure of the League of Nations

Failure of the League of Nations
Subject weaknesses which do not, the League of Nations has failed to establish a collective security due to design errors which, whatever they were fatal for her and for world peace, have used lessons for the future.

Weaknesses of the League of Nations:

Ebranlée, for at the outset, by the non-ratification of the u.s. Senate, the League of Nations was faced with a variety of problems the having submitted strained.

Its universality failed:

from to at the outset the defeated and not recognized by the United States, the League of Nations is far from being a universal Organization.

Firstly, the debate on the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and the Pact of the League of Nations, begins the return of the American President Woodrow Wilson in the United States, 08 July 1919. According to the u.s. constitution the Senate must approve the Treaty by a majority of two thirds, until the President can ratify it. Despite a slight Republican majority, Wilson was very confident because he is convinced that the American public is in its most favourable to the new diplomacy and therefore to the League of Nations. However in the first sales of two-thirds vote has not been achieved. Negotiations would be necessary with the groups opposed to the text.

Gold Woodrow Wilson will demonstrate a stubborn boundless. He refused to virtually any amendment proposed by some groups. Bush wants to accept no compromise. For the Republicans, the League of Nations should not interfere in hemispheric Affairs because the Monroe doctrine to review. In the United States should not be directly involved in European Affairs, they could not accept to police in the old world. Republicans are supporters of isolationist policy of the United States.

Therefor, the President decides to appeal to the general public. It will undertake an extensive tour across the country despite the refusal of her doctor because of his health was also prepared to sacrifice to save the Treaty. "I hope that travel will have disastrous consequences, but if so, should I have to go." However support for theses Wilsonian remains diffuse and relatively low-intensity. The deterioration of the State of health of the American President and the strong opposition of opponents delayed ratification of treaties by 55 against 39 Yes all. Senate condemning Wilson, therefore refused to ratify the Treaty of peace and the Pact of the League of Nations. This is the first hard blow to the organization which will limit its action in the future by depriving a compelling support for sustainability.

American refusal to join the League of Nations and the absence of the majority of African and Asian countries make it a more European than global organization. The League of Nations was a universal Organization by its ambitions. Half of the 42 European countries are signatories of the Pact. This group was joined in the three years that followed the creation of the company by a dozen of Europe with the participation of the old world to two-thirds. On the other hand, many countries were not invited to this organization which claims to defend the world peace. The Bolshevik Russia and losers are the flagship example.

. Moreover, in the wake of its establishment, the League of Nations Treaty European issues. Starting with the border dispute between the Germany and on the Upper Silesia Poland and Eastern Prussia. Then the dispute opposite Sweden to Finland on the Åland Islands or tension between the Greece and the Bulgaria. The scope of the League of Nations generally confined to the European area. Many observers have noted organization problems arise from the failure of its universality. It has not managed to recruit massively outside the continent. Indeed the majority of its administrative staff comes from European countries. This concern issues of the European continent would be a serious infringement of the League of Nations will be deprecated by other Member countries. Failure becomes obvious with the consequences of the global economic crisis of 1929

The global economic crisis:

Until 1929 prosperity and its beneficial effects helped save peace becomes increasingly fragile due to the shortness of growth which had started well before the Black Thursday the meltdown has hit the New York Stock Exchange. Development without extent speculative credit and exaggerated rating companies made illusion. With the stock market collapse, prosperity faded leaving a crisis which seriously affects economic growth in the country. Bankruptcy, plant closures and job losses are on a daily basis. Financial Hurricane spreads close close and its turbulence soon won the majority of European countries in several countries of political upheavals. Social structures are rolled in turn leaving reign a crisis of confidence coupled with a return of isolationism. The first benefits of binding savings arise at least one year earlier in the field of inter-State relations.

. Moreover, the major industrial States have authoritarian or totalitarian, plan the Italy, Japan from 1931 and Germany starting in January 1933, will strive to overcome the crisis developing weapons industries. At the same time they adopt an isolationist policy through partial or total, autarcies apparently become the stated remedy. This closing itself develops forms of selfishness national who will take precedence over international agreements and arrangements. Once again these even fever isolationist nationalism will prevail.

Events are skeptical with great rapidity as the League of Nations was completely shocked by the new deal. The economic crisis has contributed to the degradation of the international community. It was announced, the beginning of the end of the collective security. It is finally the consequences of the global economic crisis 1929 most things international relations in the 1930s. Prey to powerless and economic and political turmoil in the new environment, the League of Nations was more mired in the case of Manchuria.

Problem disarmament:

Apart from the naval field, differences between the major powers have aborted the Disarmament Conference which led to a withdrawal of the League of Nations him wearing a fatal blow Germany.

General disarmament is the ultimate goal of collective security. In these fourteen points in January 1918, the American President Woodrow Wilson requests sufficient guarantees that data. Article 8 of the Covenant of the League of Nations provides disarmament "That arms in each country will be reduced to the lowest level consistent with national security and execution of the obligations imposed by common action". Thus imposed by the Treaty of Versailles to the Germany disarmament is designed as a prelude to general disarmament. It has made progress in the naval field. The Washington Conference (November 1921 – February 1922) and London (January - April 1930) have managed to set ceilings on the tonnages of the fleets and to establish a hierarchy between the major powers naval (United States of America, United Kingdom Japan, France, Italy). In the work of the Preparatory Conference for general disarmament started in 1926, led to a finding of deprivation. Commission ran to the Franco-British dispute on the principle and how that should govern the disarmament. Great Britain, that its insularity associated with the power of its fleet prémunissait direct aggression, was in favour of immediate disarmament. It may be intended to weaken militarily France, suspicious of hegemony on the old continent. However the France redoubt permanently revenge on the part of Germany keeps intact economic power under tending his possibilities of rearmament. The France considered therefore that its current military superiority was the best guarantee of peace and disarmament will be subject to a later stage or ultimate. The League of Nations remains therefore divided on this issue despite the participation, on an informal basis, the United States and the Soviet Union in its work. The refusal in 1927 by the France and the Italy attend Naval Conference on Disarmament left trunk prejudging the future. This complements clandestine rearmament of the Reich was initiated in 1924 by General Von Seeckt with the complicity of political power and the substantial support of the Soviet Government.

. Furthermore, the Disarmament Conference was characterized by differences which have contributed to its failure. Indeed, all the plans developed by the great powers, was denied by one or the other. On 30 January 1933, Hitler became Chancellor of the Reich. The Germany-the France relations became strained. In this context, the Germany withdrew from the Conference 14 October 1933 followed five days after a withdrawal from the League of Nations. The Disarmament Conference therefore resulted in dismal failure. Too late, open at a time when the economic crisis had already awakened rivalries and competition, she highlighted more than everything, the impotence of the League of Nations to find common ground between the great powers.

And the League of Nations still once failed in one of its main objectives. The Organization should send to disarm the major military powers to reduce any risk of conflict or confrontation in the future. Organization in question has been undermined not only by the failure of the Conference on disarmament and the withdrawal of a potential member in this case the Germany but also by a new aggression orchestrated by the Italy from a country member of the League of Nations.

-Design errors:

Association of the League of Nations treaties of peace it was discredited in the eyes of several States including particularly the losers who consider that such treaties as the League of Nations are dictates which should disappear.

Indeed thinking that collective security was the first duty of the negotiations, Wilson had insisted in his fourteenth point that was instrumental in establishing an international organization responsible for the maintenance of peace. He had thus obtained the Pact of the League of Nations become incorporated into the treaties in the form of a preamble. Five treaty imposed on the vanquished namely: the Treaty of Versailles signed with the Germany 28 June 1919, that of Saint-Germain on the Austria on 10 September 1919, the Treaty of Neuilly making losing part of its territory to the Bulgaria on November 27, 1919, the Trianon doing the same with the Hungary on 4 June 1920 and finally Treaty of Sèvres announcing the Turkey dépècement 10 August 1920 include all clause which gives rise to the League of Nations. All these treaties have been negotiated between the winners and especially the four: the United States, , the France and to a lesser extent the Italy. The vanquished, nor the Bolshevik Russia attended at the peace conference. Result of resentment expressed by the vanquished and bitterness of some winners as the Italy although victorious, was also unhappy with his fate, as its claims have not been met.

On the other hand, these same treaties will divide the Central and Eastern Europe. The disappearance of the empire Austro-Hongrois translates the creation of many small island States often very fragile. Each was reconstituted as the Poland and the Hungary while others were forged from scratch as the Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. The winners have thought possible to reconstruct the map of Europe on the principle of nationalities. But the new territorial clipping left persist pockets of minority wear in them as much potential seeds for new conflicts. The Pact of the League of Nations, which is the preamble of the Treaty appears to recognize this new order. This organization is located soon confronted with several new conflicts between the newly created entities.

Finally, negotiators for Paris therefore could not give the world status which ensures peace forever. Their failure was found to be patent on several issues. Taking away from the Conference, by refusing to satisfy the claims of the Italy in the Adriatic and stripping in favour of the Greece Turkey Russia negotiators increasing discontent homes in Europe and Asia and create themselves the conditions necessary for the questioning of their work in an atmosphere explosive and unconducive to the maintains the peace in the world. The future is so heavy thunderstorm when the Conference separates; the difficulties arising from the application of the treaties, will soon make popcorn.

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